Strategic directions of development of Kazakhstan as basis of successes of social and economic reforms
Kazakhstan possesses the huge territory thanks to efforts of our ancestors. On it was born many outstanding leaders, batyrs, thinkers, philosophers, scientists, poets. For example, Abylay the khan, Kabanbay the batyr, Abay Kunanbayev, Shokan Valikhanov, Dinmukhamed Konayev, Kanysh Satpayev, Turar Ryskulov and is a lot of, it is a lot of other great sons of the Kazakh steppe. They left in heritage not only the huge territory with rich natural resources, but also culture, wisdom, tolerance and spirit. From the territory of Kazakhstan for the first time in the history of mankind the person departed to space. Many known politicians in neighboring states were born on our earth. All this chain of natural circumstances. The earth of Kazakhstan throughout all the history gives to the world of ingenious people.
Now the Republic of Kazakhstan in many respects successfully and steadily develops. It managed to achieve not only at the expense of resources, but in many respects thanks to competent and pragmatic management. At such turning points of history the person possessing charisma and quality of the leader, the creator and the seer is necessary. And such person appeared in Kazakhstan, during the period when the USSR collapsed and the economy fell. During big changes, instability and uncertainty our Leader of the nation President N.A.Nazarbayev headed independent Kazakhstan and directed the country on a development and wellbeing way. In the first years of independence the country leaders had an accurate idea and ways of realization of economic and social policy. These arguments are confirmed offered by the President of the country "by Strategy 2030: prosperity, safety and improvement of welfare of all Kazakhstan citizens". In it N.A.Nazarbayev notes: "… it is necessary to see constantly before itself future model in a general view and in the form of the specific short-term goals that, undertaking any actions, constantly to be tried on - whether we move in the necessary direction or we go off-course, we advance events or we lag behind. When mentally you compare day today's with day tomorrow's, repeating this process many times, differently you perceive scales of problems and their importance. Realizing itself part of the world and all planet, we feel breath and approach of a new era and new time" .
Understanding all importance of the development plan of the state, the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan focused on it special attention: "Well developed strategic plan focuses, disciplines and promotes. It focuses attention of the state on very short list of priorities, it disciplines and configures the government to the daily solution of these tasks and strategy. At last, it promotes adoption of daily and annual decisions which will lead to realization of our purposes. But this isn't enough. It isn't less important to put these installations into practice, to realize the drawn-up plans. Therefore it is extremely necessary to create system at which each ministry and department will organize the work so that every day, month and year we step by step moved ahead to goals. It is necessary that the state workers daily saw before themselves strategic objectives and priorities and realized them, without distracting on the solution of minor and everyday tasks. Adopted laws and decisions have to be in line with our strategy, work - concentrated and coordinated" .
Having taken as a basis this Strategy and following the weighed policy, the country managed to break a crisis situation, to provide the world and tranquillity in the multinational state, to stabilize an economic situation and to provide its growth. Certainly, during this period there was a population outflow from the country, but it was left by natives of the neighboring republics. Representatives of the title nation opposite, stretched on the historical homeland. Kazakhstan accepted the children, helping them to acquire housing, a life, education in process of opportunities of the state budget. Everyone who wished to find work, found it.
The country leaders accurately trace the processes happening in global economic system. The modern world became interconnected and interdependent. And as crisis yet didn't end, tension from future expectation in the world increases every day. As N.A.Nazarbayev notes: "It is reality with which it is necessary to reckon as everything … All this demands from the state of the verified social policy. And I should hold constantly social problems on control, constantly to them to come back. In focus of my attention – care of each Kazakhstan citizen. And it is necessary because life and everyday health of all citizens of our country depends on the solution of social problems. For years of Independence in Kazakhstan the strong base of the social state is created. Objectively Kazakhstan closely came nearer to qualitative level of social development of the Central European countries. Standards of life of Kazakhstan citizens steadily raise. But a vital issue is that, how effectively our citizens use stability and wellbeing fruits" . Further serious step to the stable future was sounded on November 30, 2012. Message of the President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev to the people of Kazakhstan "Strategy "Kazakhstan-2050": new political policy of the taken place state": "Kazakhstan началаXXI vekanezavisy also is self-assured. The changes happening in the world under the influence of prolonged global crisis, don't frighten us. We are ready to them. Now our task – keeping everything that we reached for years of the sovereignty, to continue a sustainable development вXXIвеке. Our main goal – by 2050 a prosperity sozdatyobshchestvo on the basis of the strong state, the developed economy and opportunities of general work. The strong state is especially important for providing conditions of the accelerated economic growth. The strong state goes in not for survival policy, and policy of planning, long-term development and economic growth" .Результаты "Strategy 2030" there were a powerful impulse for realization of the set new tasks "Strategy Kazakhstan-2050". For example, the Republic of Kazakhstan isn't the donor of labor of neighboring states. It is result of systematic work of the state. It is possible to tell with confidence that guest workers of Kazakhs in other states aren't present. This big achievement as it as a whole shows the general state of the economy of the country. Kazakhstan isn't the exporter of cheap labor, and opposite, providing itself also gives the chance to citizens of neighboring states to get a job. For example, only from Tajikistan in our country more than 100 thousand people work. Also in search of earnings in a mass order to Kazakhstan there come citizens of Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, China, etc. Now there came the moment when it is already necessary to create a reserve for future development of Kazakhstan, to leave to other generations a steady basis. According to forecasts of many experts stocks of many natural resources in years 30-40 will be almost settled. Therefore already now it is necessary to put huge investments into the intellectual capital of the country. The intellectual capital has a non-material basis. It as result of the enclosed investments is focused on prospect. It is possible to call by carriers of the intellectual capital the professionals allocated with unique and difficult with replaceable abilities which importance for society is best of all estimated in the conditions of the market. The knowledge is invaluable, therefore, and investments into education, in fact, are invaluable. The intellectual capital becomes a wealth basis, as at the level of a family, the separate enterprise, and the state as a whole. Within pursued industrial and innovative policy, Kazakhstan has to be guided not on catching up, and by breakthrough economic development. Therefore prospects of growth of business economics and the republic as a whole completely depend on dynamics of development of the intellectual capital. In the country the tendency towards intellectual development within state programs is noted. So, the Intellectual Nation — 2020 project in which the concept the intellectual capital of the nation is defined already functions. It is all accumulated scientific, professional, cultural information, knowledge and abilities of specialists of all branches and life spheres, intellectual, moral and cultural development of each certain person and positive mental and moral features, its social and positive customs and habits, and also social and positive national traditions; good professional skills, education, good good breeding, patriotism, civil activity, discipline, courage, honesty diligence, ability to self-organize in social positive groups . The industrial and innovative program of development is besides developed and functions. Transition to the innovative economy based on knowledge, will allow to suspend "leakage of minds", will provide a priority development of education and sciences, will create conditions for preservation and increase of intellectual potential of the country.
The practical step on formation and development of the intellectual capital in the Republic of Kazakhstan is already made. So at the initiative of the Head of state Nazarbayev university was created. Round it the innovative and intellectual cluster which passed the program of production control is created and will promote a transfer and creation of new technologies with their subsequent introduction in production. Today at university 65 research projects from which 19 are financed through the Ministry of Education and Science as the state task are realized. Also the university realizes 11 grant projects of scientific centers.
As a whole, it is important to note that financing of basic and applied researches in the field of economic, social and the humanities the Ministry of Education and Science of RK is carried out on a priority "Intellectual potential of the country".
Knowledge and ideas of future experts should be concentrated on development and deployment in practice of systems of renewable energy. To come by the time of exhaustion of natural resources to level of large-scale production of renewable energy. It has to provide not only needs of Kazakhstan, but also to leave for export. And sales markets in the long term the huge. For example, only 3 countries from BRICS (Russia, China, India) with total number about 3 billion people are our next neighbors. Having such effective tool of economic and political pressure Kazakhstan will manage to keep a steady position in the Central Asian region. And disputes will arise! Kazakhstan has no rivers which take a source from our territory. Generally we eat water from China, Russia, Uzbekistan. Therefore in the future also according to forecasts of experts there will be a question connected with deficiency of water resources. And here the direction on creation of powerful regional system of renewable energy is very actual. Having such system, Kazakhstan remains as the equal partner giving in exchange, but not asking.
Idea to turn water into pressure tool already are available long ago. All understand that now water is goods which will grow every year only in the price, is a source of life, the social and production activity is completely based on it, and finally is an effective instrument of advance of interests. So, the former mayor of Moscow Yu.M.Luzhkov offered in the book "Water and World" the project on a turn of the Siberian rivers towards Central Asia. Here it was covered not only friendly gesture, but also accurate commercial and political calculation. It was the far-sighted plan which for various reasons didn't find support and approval.
Other priority direction for development is the agriculture. Kazakhstan first of all the agrarian country, and this factor needs to be used it. The increase in population around the world will lead to increase in demand at food. And our country is capable to provide not only, but also to export agriculture production abroad.
In consciousness of many people the thought that agrarian sector this unprofitable direction of economy sits. This deep delusion. It will be unprofitable until the complex system with a full cycle from production of the equipment, equipment, etc., productions of production of agriculture, its processing in the final product and before realization to consumers will be adjusted. Only thus, profitable functioning of agrarian sector of economy will be ensured. Thus it is necessary to apply actively modern technologies and innovations in agrarian sector and processing industry. They have to pursue the aim of introduction of innovative approaches in branch, increase of labor productivity and competitiveness of the country.
Thus, giving huge value to the put priorities and mechanisms of their realization the country it is capable to reach those ambitious plans which face it. Therefore each stage of social and economic construction of Kazakhstan has to be accompanied by synchronous work of strategy, concepts and other program documents aimed at receiving concrete results.
1 . Strategiya 2030: procvetanie, bezopasnost i uluchshenie blagosostoyaniya vsex kazaxstancev//elektronnyj resurs: http://akorda.kz
2 . Strategiya "Kazahstan-2050": novyj politicheskij kurs sostojavshegosja gosudarstva//elektronnyj resurs: http://akorda.kz
3 . Programmnaya statya n.a.nazarbaeva "socialnaya modernizaciya kazaxstana: dvadcat shagov k obshhestvu vseobshhego truda//elektronnyj resurs: http://akorda.kz
4 . "Intellektualnaya naciya – 2020"//elektronnyj resurs http://www.zakon.kzKeywords: economy, strategy, intellectual capital, innovations
Article is devoted to judgment of the true state of the economy of Kazakhstan through a prism of the historical past, the present and a view of the future, as self-sufficient independent state. Any country has development prospects only when adequately estimates national heritage and at the head there is a skillful leader.
In this paper there was also emphasized the role of the state Strategy and the programs which accurate realization allowed to reach good results. The author showed the main directions of development which are strategically important for the country. To them are carried: the intellectual capital, the innovations, renewed energy. They will define future development of the country.
(Institute of economy of KN of MOH PK, Almaty)
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