Archeology of Kazakhstan during an independence era: results and prospects.
The Kazakhstan archeology started being formed since pre-revolutionary time. Creation in 1991 was a culmination, defining event in archeology of Kazakhstan. Archeology institute of A.Kh.Margulan. Institute, being the age-mate of independent Kazakhstan, adequately I passed the twenty-year creative and creative way, being the chief coordinator of archaeological science in our Republic.
The archeology institute of A.Kh.Margulan was created at all from scratch. Its formation happened in Soviet period in a subsoil of Institute of history, archeology and ethnography to them Ch.Ch.Valikhanova organized in post-war years as a part of Academy of Sciences Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic.
Not casually the Institute of archeology bears name A.H. Margulana. Formation of the Kazakhstan archeology is directly connected with his name. Being the versatile scientist, especially in the field of historical, philological sciences and oriental studies, A.Kh.Margulan especially treated archeology. It after AN creation KAZSSR organized at once the first archaeological expedition of Institute of history, archeology and ethnography of Ch.Ch.Valikhanova, - Central Kazakhstan which worked under his management about 30 years. The main outcome of long-term researches in expedition of the scientist was opening of bright and original culture of bronze of Saryarka, allocation of the begazy-dandybayevsky culture which has gained recognition among historians, archeologists and the public was especially important.
Since post-war years, archaeological researches in Kazakhstan had planned and system character.
The merit in preparation of the Kazakhstan shots of archeologists of outstanding Soviet scientists is great: A.V.Artsikhovskogo, M.E.Masson, S. P. Tolstov, A.N.Bernshtama, L. S. of Gryaznov, S. S. Tchernikov, P.I.Borisovskogo, A.M.Belenitskogo, L.R.Kyzlasova and many other. In this regard it is necessary to mark out the archeologists of Kazakhstan working in Soviet period: E.I.Ageev, A.G.Maksimova, E.I.Senigova, K.A.Akishev, K.M.Baypakova, L.B.Erzakovich, H.A.Alpysbayev, M.K.Kadyrbayev, S. M. Akhinzhanova, B. N. Nurmukhanbetova, T.M.Savelyev, Zh.K.Kurmankulova, Z.Samashev, A.S.Yermolaev and many others which the work and achievements created the base of future independent Institute of archeology of Kazakhstan.
Opened in 1991. The institute of Archeology put the following main scientific directions before archaeological science of Kazakhstan:
"- development of questions of anthropogenesis, moving of the primitive person in the territory of Kazakhstan during a stone era;
- studying of ethnogenesis of Kazakhs on archaeological sources;
- studying of a problem of an origin and development of making economy (cattle breeding and agriculture). Questions палеоэкономики, evolutions of ancient technologies;
- nomadizm research, studying of an ancient and medieval urbanization, interaction of settled and nomadic cultures;
- studying of monuments of archeology, ancient art and architecture. Problems of preservation of a cultural heritage" (Baypakov, 1992, page 3).
For implementation of these tasks at Institute the following scientific departments are created:
- primitive archeology;
- medieval archeology;
- novostroyechny expeditions;
- Arch of monuments of archeology;
- laboratory of archaeological technology;
- archeology museum (Baypakov, 1992, page 3).
Opening of Institute was result of the Kazakhstan school of archeology. The certificate to it are participation of the Kazakhstan scientists in the international project of UNESCO "Great
Silk way - a way of dialogue of cultures" (Baypakov, 1993, page 5) and carrying out in Alma-Ata the international seminar of UNESCO (Interaction …).
The first years of independence dictated by conditions of a transition period and disorder of economy of the former federal republic were difficult, as was reflected in the initial stages formation of archaeological science. Former scientific touches were lost, work in archives of libraries, funds of museums in the former federal republics became complicated. Nevertheless, lack of due financing of field archaeological works wasn't reflected in mutual contacts of all archaeological brotherhood of the Commonwealth of Independent States. On the contrary, there were new opportunities and new scientific communications.
To Kazakhstan experts and expeditions from the foreign and neighboring countries stretched. Striking example to it is studying of Bataysk culture, the Kazakh-Russian, Kazakh-French and Kazakh-American expeditions of the 1990th.
About it professor V.F.Zaybert writes: "Only after formation of sovereign Kazakhstan the settlement Botay scientists from England could visit, America, Germany. During their visits joint programs of researches of materials of Botaya which included my visit in 1994 of a number of the British universities with lectures about Botaye and the organization in the Cambridge archaeological museum of an exhibition about Bataysk culture, and also the organization of the international symposium "Early horse breeders of Eurasia" on Botaye in 1995 in which 80 scientists from 16 countries of the foreign and neighboring countries" (Zaybert, 2005) took part were accepted.
Since 1992 the Kazakh-Russian expedition which conducts collaborations in the territory of Russia and Kazakhstan on implementation of the international program "Palaeoecology of the Ancient Person and Initial Development of the Euroasian Continent" is created. From the Russian side specialists of Institute of archeology and ethnography of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science under the leadership of A.P.Derevyanko, with Kazakhstan - the staff of Institute of archeology of A.Kh.Margulan under the leadership of Zh.K.Taymagambetova participated.
From 1995 to 2000 expedition realizes the project "A paleolith of an arid zone of Kazakhstan: periodization and chronology" in which the International Kazakh-Turkish university of H.A.Yasaui participates also. Since 2000, the Kazakh state national university is connected to the project of al-Farabi. The received results passed approbation and recognition at the international forums in Belgium, Holland, Russia, Kazakhstan (Derevyanko, Taymagambetov, Petrin, 1999, page 29-30; Derevyanko, Petrin, Zenin, Taymagambetov, Gladyshev, Tsybank, Slavinsky, 2003, page 5).
"Opening of tens the new locations relating to early, average and late stages of a paleolith became a result of long-term researches of joint Russian-Kazakhstan archaeological expedition. The unique data characterizing processes of settling by the ancient person of the territory of Central Asia in a pleistocene are obtained. Works on Youzhny Kazakhstana's travertinovy objects in combination with studying of complexes with a superficial bedding of artifacts have paramount importance, as for reconstruction of paleoecological living conditions of the ancient person, and for attempts of a reconstruction of adaptation systems of the human communities living in arid conditions. It will allow us to speak more surely about time, character and an orientation of development by the person of droughty areas of the Euroasian continent" (Derevyanko, Petrin, Zenin, Taymagambetov, Gladyshev, Tsybank, Slavinsky, 2003, page 7).
In 1993 the Kazakh-French expedition on studying of rock drawings of Kazakhstan where specialists of Institute of archeology, Kazproyektrestavratsy Institute, the National center of scientific researches of France entered is created. Preparation of materials of the Case of petroglyphs of Kazakhstan was the main objective of expedition; contactless copying of rock paintings; geochemical analyses; development of a technique of preservation of petroglyphs. To interesting results led geochemical analyses of petroglyphs according to which it was established that the microorganisms living on a surface of rocks, accumulate various information about палеоклимате. The bacteria located on rocks with petroglyphs, layer the smallest fossils which comparative analysis with archaeological subjects with patinas from burial grounds allow to specify age of drawings (Samashev, Tuyakbayev, 1993, page 92-93).
Especially productive there were works of the international expedition organized in 1997 with the participation of the employees of archaeological mission of France in Central Asia and the research center of Italy by Ligabuye where representatives of scientific institutions of Russia entered, Italy, Sweden, Z.Samashev headed it. Systematic studying of monuments of ancient nomads of the Kazakhstan Altai was the main objective of expedition. Within the international project necropolises Mayemer, Tar Asu, Berel were investigated, new monuments of petroglyphic art (Samashev, Frankfort, Yermolaev, Zhumabekov, Gy, Sungatay, Zhetibayev, Lobsters, 1998, page 174-175) are open.
To sensational results led researches of a saksky necropolis Berel, in particular a barrow No. 11. Thanks to a phenomenon of the permafrost formed under a stone embankment of a barrow, the mummified remains of people, buried animals, wooden products, felt, skin (Samashev, Frankfort, 1999, page 33-37 perfectly remained; Samashev, Bazarbayev, Zhumabekova, Sungatay, 2000). This find was widely shined in various literature and was highly appreciated as outstanding opening of world level, it made an essential contribution to studying of culture ancient номадов Altai.
Significant results were reached by the Kazakh-American expedition identification of processes of evolution from the settlement to urbanism in the Talgarsky region, captured the period from juice before the Middle Ages under the leadership of K.M.Baypakova was which main objective. In expedition researches from the Kazakhstan party participated K.M.Baypakov, T.V.Savelyev, F.P.Grigoriev, Y.Peshkov, A.Manapova, O. V. Kuznetsova, T.V.Trifonova, from the American - K.Chang, P. Turtellott, K.Rein, A.Rosen, M Forshtadt, B. Rouen, S. Tanaka.
Works were carried out on the settlement Tuzusay, Talgar-3 and the ancient settlement Talgar. In this project the Kazakhstan researchers concentrated generally on studying of features of the construction designs found on settlements and an archaeological material. Meanwhile the American scientists concentrated on carrying out laboratory researches, the analysis of zooarchaeological, phytolytic, paleobotanichesky materials.
As a result of field and laboratory works it was established that the scale of settled life and development of craft production during an era of juice were much wider, than it was represented earlier. Opportunity was created is more reasoned to state questions of subsidence ancient номадов and emergence in them settled agricultural settlements (Chang, Savelyev, 1996, page 86-91).
Since 1997 in Kazakhstan on a competitive basis, with carrying out independent scientific and technical examination, fundamental and applied scientific and technical programs began to be carried out. First program of basic researches of Institute of archeology "Ancient cultural heritage of Kazakhstan: deep sources and traditions" it was realized in 1997-1999 (Baypakov, Petenev, 2001, page 8). Since then the Institute, as well as many other scientific institutions of Kazakhstan, carries out the activity within this program.
Sign I was for the Kazakhstan archeologists of 1998 which was declared by the Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan for Year of national unity and national history. The state program of RK "Revival of the Historical Centers of the Silk Way, Preservation and Successive Development of a Cultural Heritage of the Turkic-speaking States, Tourism Infrastructure Creation" is the same year approved. The program included a complex of actions for studying, preservation, a muzeefikation and restoration of 30 monuments located on the Kazakhstan site of the Great Silk way (Baypakov, Petenev, 2001, page 8) .
In Year of national unity and national history Ishimsky expedition under the leadership of K.A.Akishev who sets a task of archaeological and paleoetnografichesky research of Nour-Ishimsky Entre Rios where identification and topographical research of monuments of medieval city culture, definition of objects of future large-scale excavation (Akishev, 1999, page 5) was a main goal is created.
That year by results of K.A.Akishev's expedition I wrote: "On the artifacts received by our researchers in the current year, it is obviously possible to plan contours of historical and cultural development in the ancient time and the Middle Ages and to estimate prospects of its further research. Entre Rios Irtysh-Ishym-Nura - the extensive steppe region with the numerous archaeological monuments relating to different historical eras" (Akishev, 1999, page 5-6).
The ninetieth years were special for the Kazakhstan archeology, there was an adaptation of science and archeologists to new conditions of market economy. To field researches private, legal and corporate funds, money of the international funds are raised.
Despite financial difficulties of a transition period of the ninetieth years, continued to work the Southern Kazakhstan complex archaeological expedition under the leadership of K.M.Baypakova, the Central Kazakhstan archaeological expedition under the leadership of Zh.K.Kurmankulova, Semirechensky complex archaeological expedition under the leadership of K.A.Akishev, the West Kazakhstan archaeological expedition under the leadership of Z.Samashev, the North Kazakhstan archaeological expedition under the leadership of M.K.Habdulina, the Kazakhstan novostroyechny archaeological expedition under the leadership of L.B.Erzakovich, Turkestani archaeological expedition under the leadership of E.A.Smagulova, Saryarkinsky archaeological expedition under the leadership of A.Z.Beysenova, the Arch of archaeological monuments of Kazakhstan under the leadership of V.A.Groshev, Merkensky archaeological expedition under the leadership of A.M.Dosymbayeva, Almaty novostroyechny archaeological expedition under the direction of B.N. Nurmukhanbetova.
In the nineties these expeditions on 115 archaeological monuments carried out stationary archeological excavations, large-scale investigations on Mangystau's plateau, the northern coast of the Aral Sea, Zhetysu, East and Northern Pribalkhashya, East Kazakhstan, Kyzylordinsky, Almaty, Southern Kazakhstan, Atyrausky, Zhambylsky, Mangystausky, Karaganda and Akmolinsky areas (Baypakov, Petenev, 2001, page 5-6).
The end 20 - the beginning of 21 centuries were marked in the Kazakhstan archeology by opening in regions of the research centers and archeology institutes.
In 1996 in the city of Turkestan at the International Kazakh-Turkish university of H.A.Yasaui the research institute of archeology transformed in 1998 to the separate research center was organized.
In 1996-1999. The center of archeology was headed by Z.Isabekov, 2001-2008gg. - professor M. Eleuov, since 2008 - professor S. Zholdasbayev. In the archeology Center during the different periods known archeologists worked: K.M.Baypakov, O. Ismagulov, R.Z.Burnashev, Z.Samashev, Zh.K.Taymagambetov, A.B.Kalyshev, D.F.Vinnik, D. Taleev, M. Kasenov, etc. Archaeological expeditions of the MKTU center of H.A.Yasavi achieved fine results when studying the monuments located on northern and southern slopes of Karatau. Large-scale investigation is carried out. Hundreds earlier unknown objects are revealed. The arches of monuments of certain regions of Youzhny Kazakhstana are made. Excavation of the ancient settlement Tortkoltobe, Karachik, Sauran, Sygnak changed our former ideas of Youzhny Kazakhstana's city culture and filled up them with new materials.
In 2003 at the Karaganda state university of E.A.Buketov the Saryarkinsky Archaeological Institute (SAI) is open. Creation of Institute leaves in 1976 when under the leadership of V.V.Evdokimov at university the archaeological laboratory worked. In 1994 the laboratory is transformed in joint with archeology Institute of A.Kh.Margulan department of archeology of the Central Kazakhstan which from 1995 to 2003 was headed by V.G.Loman.
Saryarkinsky archaeological институтпроводит the research work connected with studying and sokhraneniyemkulturny heritage of the Central Kazakhstan. Scientific subjects are developed: "Funeral ceremony of an andronovsky cultural and historical community", "Ceramic ware as a source on stories of the population of Kazakhstan during an era of bronze and early iron", "The central Kazakhstan at the end of a bronze era", "Reconstruction of outlook and social structure of ancient tribes of Kazakhstan (2-1 thousand BC).
In 2002 under the leadership of professor M. N. Sdykov, with assistance of archeology Institute to them A.Kh.Margulan, was created the West Kazakhstan center of history and archeology. Center work after creation began to take place at once according to specially developed state and regional programs. For these years the center revealed over one and a half thousand monuments of archeology. Excavation on the ancient settlement Zhayyk, Lebedevk's necropolises, Kyrk-Oba, Buldurta, Solyanka, Ileshker, Ulguli, Aksay, etc. was carried out. (Archaeological map of the West Kazakhstan region, 2009, page 11-14).
In January, 2006 in Aktobepod A.A.Bisembayev's guide sozdayetsyaoblastny the center of history, ethnography and archeology which conducts at once archaeological researches in the region in two directions – prospecting and raskopochny character. Today continuous inspection центрохватил about 50% of the area of the Aktyubinsk area, on five regions of area are let out the Arches of monuments of natural and historical and cultural heritage. Large raskopochny researches were conducted on burial grounds Gyuruldek, Sarytau, Onaybulak, Taldysay, Sapibulak. Since 2009 the center works on the regional programmeaktyubinsky area "Monuments of Early Nomads of Or-Ileksky Entre Rios" which realization takes place in common with specialists of Institute of archeology of A.Kh.Margulan and the German archaeological institute (DAI, Berlin). The center is known for the editions thanks to the traditional international conference "Kadyrbayevsky Readings" (Bisembayev, Sdykov, 2011).
Especially it should be noted the Research institute of archeology created in structure of the Euroasian national university of L.N.Gumilev. Creation of institute is connected with a name of the outstanding scientist-archeologist of Kazakhstan Kimalya Akishevich Akisheva who has made an invaluable contribution in development of archaeological science of Kazakhstan, in creation of the academic school of archeology, education of archaeological shots, opening of a number of the remarkable monuments, one of which - "The gold person" in a barrow Issyk.
The archeology scientific research institute of K.A.Akishev carries out archaeological works in the territory of the Central Kazakhstan. Is the performer of programs of basic and applied researches of KN of MOH PK, the State program "Cultural heritage", Bozok conducts excavation of the medieval ancient settlement. In the course of excavation new scientific and technical methods are applied, ways of restoration and preservation of architectural and archaeological structures are developed and take root. Monitoring of a condition of archaeological object is carried out. The received results take root into educational process.
Quite recently at the Kazakh national university of al-Farabi the archaeological center is created. Its creation first of all is connected with activity of chair of the archeology organized in 1971 at the initiative of rector U.A.Zholdasbekova. For these years the chair of archeology of department of history TREASURY of al-Farabi left a number of the experts who have taken a worthy place in science. Among them it is necessary to mark out Eleuov, Zh.K.Taymagambetova, A.T.Toleubayev, S.I.Azhigali, E.A.Smagulova, M. Hodzhayev, etc.
In different years on chair known scientific A.Kh.Margulans, S. S. Tchernikov, Yu.A.Zadneprovsky, L. S. Gryaznov, K.A.Akishev, K.M.Baypakov, O.I.Ismagulov, H.A.Alpysbayev, H.A.Argynbayev and мн gave lectures. other.
Besides implementation of the important social order of society on preparation of highly qualified specialists in the field of historical sciences, the chair of archeology has achievements in research of heritage of Kazakhstan, they are known by results of studying of the Stone Age (hands. - Zh.K.Taymagambetov), bronze age (hands. - A.M.Orazbayev), the early Iron Age – (hands. - A.T.Toleubayev), city culture (hands. - M.E.Eleuov, S. Zholdasbayev, N. Aldabergenov).
Actively the laboratory of archaeological researches at Kostanaysky state university of A.Baytursynov works. Since 1998 the head of the laboratory of archaeological researches and the chief of Torgaysky archaeological expedition is A.V.Logvin. The main direction of laboratory - search and research of archaeological monuments of the Kostanay region. Some main research subjects on research of stone and bronze centuries, primitive pottery and anthropological type of primitive tribes in the territory of the Torgaysky deflection are developed. Among variety of the monuments opened and studied by laboratory, it would be desirable to allocate a burial ground Bestamak investigated since 1991. It was recognized as a unique monument in the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan, for twenty-year-old periody research more than 170 sepulchral holes and ritual constructions were opened and studied.
In 2002 at the Southern Kazakhstan state university of M. O. Auezov the Archeology and Ethnology chair, 2007 - the research center "Arkheologiya" is created. Diligence of rector V. K.Bishimbayev and under his personal control develop "The program on ethnocultural and historical research of the Southern Kazakhstan area (2001-2003gg. ) ", and a little earlier, according to an assignment Witz Premier-ministra of the Republic of Kazakhstan I.N.Tasmagambetova and letters of the director of the department of the higher and secondary professional education, YuKGU of M.O.Auezov is determined as a basic higher educational institution by problems of ethnocultural and historical researches on the Southern Kazakhstan area. This "Program" those years put a research problem of the archaeological objects located in the natural boundary Burgulyuk. Let's note that archaeological expedition of university achieved fine results in researches of monuments of Burgulyuk, having opened for the first time in the south of Kazakhstan the settlement of an era of bronze, with new type of ceramics, having called it ceramics of karzhantausky type (Baytanayev, 2010, page 32-39).
Archaeological expedition of YuKGU of M. O. Auezov conducted the researches within the State program "Cultural heritage" (2004-2009) and according to the program (2006-2008) applied and fundamental research MOH PK. Ancient settlements to Sauries (Baytanayev, 2007, page 62-81), Shymkent (Baytanayev, 2008, page 31-37), Karaspan, Zhuantobe, Tortkoltobe, etc. were studied. Large-scale investigation предгорьев Karzhantau, Karatau, Kazykurt, etc. is carried out. The age of Shymkent and Sayram is established. Necropolises of early nomads are studied.
Museums of the Ministry of Culture are known for archaeological works in the period of independence of Kazakhstan. Among them it should be noted the Central State museum, the Otyrarsky state archaeological reserve museum, the Southern Kazakhstan regional local history museum, the historical and cultural reserve the museum "Azret-Sultan". Among workers of the museums which have made a contribution to archaeological science of Kazakhstan in days of independence, it is necessary to mark out M. Hodzhayev, F.Grigoriev, M. Tuyakbayev, A.Erzhigitova, E.Eszhanov, S. Akylbek, S. Ahmed, etc.
Since 2000, archeologists of Kazakhstan participate in large international projects. The international project of UNESCO - Kazakhstan – Japan "Preservation and preservation of the ancient ancient settlement Otrar and monuments of the Otrarsky oasis" (2001-2004) became one of them. Experts were involved to execution of the project from the international centers for preservation of historical and cultural heritage from England, Germany, Japan, Italy, Kazakhstan. It is remarkable that the project was continued within the State program "Ancient Otrar's revival" under the leadership of the academician of HAH PK K.M. Baypakova.
Implementation of similar projects, first of all, became possible thanks to long-term researches of Institute of archeology of A.Kh.Margulan in the Otyrarsky oasis under the leadership of academician K.M.Baypakova. In 40 years ancient settlements Otyrar, Kuyryktobe, Oksyz, Kokmardan, Altyntobe, Pushukmardan, etc. were studied.
The research, conservation and restoration events held within the project of UNESCO, allowed to create conditions on transformation of monuments of the Otyrarsky oasis in a museum open-air on the route of the Great Silk way. New methods of preservation, restoration and documentation of syrtsovy archaeological architecture were developed.
Since 2004 the archeology of Kazakhstan endures the new take-off, new lifting which proceeds and now. In Kazakhstan the State program "Cultural heritage" is accepted not having analogs in the world.
The first stage of the program was carried out in 2004-2006, the second - 2007-2009, the third – since 2010 to the present. As objects of research archeology monuments got out generally sign, known on the previous and preliminary researches. During this time archeologists of Kazakhstan annually conducted researches on more than 35 archaeological objects. The enormous archaeological material, since an era of the Stone Age and before the late Middle Ages which scientific judgment will require not one decade is as a result saved up.
Within realization of tasks of the State strategic project "Cultural heritage", in similar regional programs huge work as archeologists of Kazakhstan which value it is difficult to overestimate was done.
Are well-known the public of opening of Berel, Shilikta, the numerous other bright monuments of saksky culture studied across Gosprogramma "Cultural heritage". In recent years the scientific world learned about opening on a burial ground of Taldy-2 investigated by A.Z.Beysenov. Here unique materials were received at excavation of seven barrows of rannesaksky elite. Including about 200 gold products, and also over 22000 smallest jewelry are found in No. No. 2 and 5 barrows scientific. All this was jewelry of a full dress notable сака, the leader, the leader. Monuments are dated 7-6 centuries BC (Beysenov, 2011).
We are faced by the new tasks first of all determined by the Law RK "About Science" adopted recently. He assumes archeology development in two directions - fundamental and applied.
For us development of the Kazakhstan fundamental archaeological science in the following directions is important: anthropogenesis studying, origin of the person and early stages of culture in Kazakhstan; theoretical development of a problem of influence of Kazakhstan on process of historical development of mankind; culture studying номадов till an era of the Kazakh khanate; studying of interaction of settled civilizations and nomadic cultures in the ancient time and Middle Ages, in particular, solution of a question on the initial stage of a protocity civilization of Kazakhstan; archeology role in studying of culture of the cities of Kazakhstan eras of the developed Middle Ages of 10-18 centuries as parts of Muslim cultural space; writing of history of the Turkic people which were playing an important role in the history of Eurasia.
The main results of basic researches it is planned to publish in the multivolume editions "Archeology of Kazakhstan" and in "Materials and researches on archeology of Kazakhstan" which have to be prepared and published in the next fifth anniversary.
Rapid economic growth of Kazakhstan, grandiose buildings, economic development of laylands bared a problem connected with preservation of monuments of historical and cultural heritage.
Today in Kazakhstan during development of its huge territory the mass of archaeological monuments is annually destroyed. It, first of all, is the result of non-compliance, and at times open ignoring by individuals of the Law RK "About Protection and Use of Historical and Cultural Heritage".
In 2007 the amendment in which it was said was made to this Law RK that before branch of the land plot researches on identification of objects of historical and cultural heritage have to be conducted. However the Law RK on places isn't observed, and we have precedents in various areas of Kazakhstan when archeology monuments with the adjacent territory without coordination with authorized body and preliminary research were transferred to the private possession or are destroyed at construction.
Proceeding from it, it is considered that the applied archeology of Kazakhstan, first of all, has to direct the efforts to research of collapsing monuments over which elimination threat at construction or economic development of the earth hung. Archeologists of Kazakhstan on places have to show every possible effort on preservation of our cultural heritage together with representatives of authorized body on preservation of monuments of archeology. Role of Institute of archeology of A.Kh.Margulan as head establishment in the Republic, in this case has to be coordination and recommendatory.
For the first time in Kazakhstan within a Year of historical and cultural heritage of the participating states of the CIS, under aegis and with support of Interstate fund of humanitarian cooperation of the participating states of the CIS, the archeology Institute of A.Kh.Margulan in KN of MOH PK from September 26 to October 10, 2011, carried out Summer school of archeologists on the basis of Turkestani archaeological expedition.
Representatives took part in work of school from various scientific centers as Kazakhstan, and other republics - Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan.
Within work of school lectures, reports, discussions and master classes on subjects took place:
1 . "A technique of excavation and fixing of materials on monuments of archeology of the ancient settlement Turkestan (Kultobe's Settlement)";
2 . "Temples and cults of ancient Central Asia";
3 . "The ancient and medieval centers of religion of Central Asia";
4 . "Sauran's role in archeology and stories of Central Asia";
5 . "Religions of Kazakhstan";
6 . "To sauries - Ispidzhab in archeology and history of Central Asia";
7 . "Studying of saksky culture in archeology of Kazakhstan";
8 . "The ancient settlement the Sidac as a source on studying of cult constructions of early medieval Kazakhstan";
9 . "Otyrar in the history and archeology of Central Asia";
10 . "Kenzhid's district in archeology and stories of Central Asia";
11 . "A Borizharsky necropolis as a source on studying of history of ancient cults and religions of Central Asia";
12 . "Technique of archaeological documentation".
Participants of school passed vocational training to new methods of work on preservation and restoration of material historical and cultural heritage; examined historical and cultural heritage of Kazakhstan, visited monuments, museums; discussed key problems of preservation of archaeological heritage in modern space of the Commonwealth; noted importance of an integrated approach and constructive interaction of the power, Institutes of archeology and mass media in the solution of archaeological problems.
Thus, the archeology of Kazakhstan during an era of independence passed a worthy way of development. Thus from 1991 to 1997 it is possible to call the period the period of adaptation to new conditions of market economy, with 1997 on 2004 - years of stabilization, from 2004 to today - the period of the break provided with economic growth of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the State program "Cultural heritage".
Baytanayev Bauyrzhan Abishevich
The director general of Institute of archeology of A.Kh.Margulan Komiteta of science of MON of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
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