Political life of Kazakhstan in 1946-1970.
The rigid command management system which has triumphed in the Country of Councils to the middle of the 20th, reached the apogee in 30 — the 40th — the beginning of the 50th, including in Kazakhstan. Such negative phenomena, as suppression of freedom of the person, ignoring of its rights, alienation of people from means of production, formation of policy of influence on the government power were fully inherent in it. In the country I.V. Stalin's cult dominated. All any successes were attributed to his ability to direct, and large shortcomings and failures — to "enemies of the people" or in every possible way suppressed. All this negatively influenced political development of the republic and turned back serious consequences. Under various slogans with use of loud political labels legality violations were made, proceeded an abuse of power. The political system showed the inability to self-development.
According to the developed tradition, the leading role was perceived as direct, purely command intervention of party bodies extensively society lives. Resolving the issues being in competence of government bodies, the Communist party as much as possible involved the state and public organizations in performance of economic and welfare tasks, depriving of them thereby independence.
Post-war development plans of the Soviet society integrally fitted into Stalin antidemocratic, totalitarian model of a socialism. But the people which have transferred all burdens and deprivations of war, became other, than in premilitary years. There was the known revaluation of values connected with the statement of a peace spirit in public life. In consciousness of contemporaries the understanding of need of turn to social programs, to democracy more and more distinctly ripened. The accruing contradiction between society and administrative and mandative methods of the party and state management was a real factor of a transition period from war to the world.
However transition to comprehensive programs of public updating at all levels of public consciousness was disturbed by steady socio-political structure. Moreover, the victory in the hardest war created confidence of efficiency of operating system of the management during the post-war period, and the majority of heads believed in infallibility of administrative methods of board.
The ideology of a socialism in the 40th — the head of the 50th reached the apogee. In these difficult conditions under vigilant control of party committees social sciences developed. Especially negatively отразилось on the further provision of social sciences the resolution of the Central Committee of VKP "About magazines — "Star" and "Leningrad" (on August 14, 1946) which marked itself the beginning of a new round of prosecution of dissent. In line with the specified resolution built the work and party committees of Kazakhstan. In the resolution of Plenum of the Central Committee of KP of Kazakhstan (March, 1947) subordinate party committees were directly recommended "to develop more widely Bolshevist criticism of political mistakes and nationalist perversions according to history, in literature and art and to provide unconditional implementation of resolutions of the Central Committee of VKP on ideological questions..."
When in Leningrad and Moscow were fabricated "The Leningrad business", "matter of doctors", in Kazakhstan was organized "Bekmakhanov's business".
Young, talented historian Ermukhan Bekmakhanov was the member of international group of the scientists working over preparation "Stories Kazakh the Soviet Socialist Republic" into which prominent Soviet historians A.P. Kuchkin, A.M. Pankratov, B.D.Grekov, N. M. Druzhinin, etc. entered. In June, 1943 the book was published. One reviewers considered it as the first and successful attempt of creation of generalizing history of Kazakhstan, others accepted it as "the book anti-Russian, in which идеализированы natsionalny revolts against Russia" 3. The assessment of anti-colonial revolts given in "History", caused fierce discussions in the scientific environment. E.Bekmakhanov's stated by it in the monograph "Kazakhstan in the 20-40th of the XIX Century." (1947) the scientific views were declared by development of the concept of bourgeois nationalists: the politically harmful. In 1950 in the Pravda newspaper in the article "For Marxist-Leninist Illumination of Questions of History of Kazakhstan" E.Bekmakhanov's book was осуждена4.
The article "Truths" was the beginning of direct political punishment over Bekmakhanov. On April 10, 1951 the Central Committee of party of Kazakhstan adopted the resolution on article in the Pravda newspaper in which recognized article correct and condemned "Bekmakhanov's bourgeois and nationalist views". In June, 1951 of the Central Committee of KP of Kazakhstan again returned to article in the Pravda newspaper and I accepted a number of additional actions for implementation of the resolution of April 10, 1951.
After a number of studies, the doctor of historical sciences E.Bekmakhanov was dismissed from Academy of Sciences and in 1951 — 1952 worked in one of high schools of the Chuysky region of the Dzhambul area, and on December 4, 1952 the Soviet Socialist Republic for 25 years was condemned by judicial board of the Supreme Court Kazakh. Only after I.V. Stalin's death business on E.Bekmakhanov's charge was reconsidered and stopped in the absence of crime structure. In the spring of 1954 it returned to Kazakhstan.
"Bekmakhanov's business" was not the only thing in the 40th — the beginning of the 50th. Prominent scientists-social scientists of the republic A.Zhubanov, X became victims of similar unfair political charges. Zhuma-liyev, B. Suleymenov, E.Ismailov, talented writer Yu.L.Dombrovsky. A.Abishev, K.Amanzholov, K.Bekhozhin, S. Begalin both other known scientists and writers were unreasonably accused of an assumption of political and bourgeois and nationalist mistakes. The president of AN Kazakh the Soviet Socialist Republic K.Satpayev both the outstanding writer and scientist M. Auezov who has undergone persecutions, were compelled to leave from Kazakhstan to Moscow. A number of scientists-biologists, physicians and the geologists accused of cosmopolitism, also were expelled from scientific institutions and chairs of higher education institutions of the republic.
Ripening in post-war years in society the understanding of need of changes was skillfully suppressed by a management system with the help a ryadamer of ideological and repressive character. But the spiritual atmosphere of the middle of the 40th — the beginning of the 50th was only muffled, but not broken.
In the first years after death Stalin (March, 1953) two lines, two approaches to a question of nature of possible changes were outlined. In 1953 — 1954 discussion about character of contradictions in socialist society, a role of the personality and a people at large in the history, a ratio of the theory and practice, a management collectivity etc. was developed.
Suppression of criminal activity of L.P. Beria became an important milestone on a way of democratization of public life. With I.V. Stalin's death and elimination from L.P. Beria's power one of the most gloomy pages of the cruel mode existing in the USSR came to the end.
Process of democratic transformations in the country began to proceed more actively. But I.V. Stalin's death didn't mean dismantle of the command management system constructed by it. Thousands condemned still sat in camps, and many politicians as involved to - to human rights violation, as well as Stalin, continued to hold high governmental posts.
Big impact on public life of the republic was made by development virgin and laylands. In anticipation of development of virgin lands there were personnel changes. At the VII congress of Communist Party of Kazakhstan instead of Z.Shayakhmetov the first secretary of the Central Committee of Communist Party of Kazakhstan it was elected P.K.Ponomarenko, the secretary — L.I.Brezhnev. The question of Z.Shayakhmetov's removal was solved in the Kremlin, without consultations with the party organization of Kazakhstan, without council with communists.
In February, 1956 in Moscow passed the XX congress of CPSU the question of overcoming of a cult of personality of Stalin was which key question. The party of communists, headed by the First secretary of the Central Committee of CPSU N. S. Khrushchev tried проанализировать the emergence reasons, essence and nature of manifestation of a cult of personality of I.V. Stalin and his consequence.
Noting courage and N. S. Khrushchev courage and his associates who have Found forces for fight against a cult of I.V. Stalin, an absolute power of a narrow circle of people, it is necessary to emphasize that the outlined demolition of authoritative system wasn't finished.
Having let out thousands innocently put people from camps, having rehabilitated some eminent persons of party, the state and party device soon curtailed these reforms. Many innocently condemned continued to pine in prisons, didn't receive an objective political assessment L.Trotsky, L.Kamenev, G. Zinovyev, N. Buharin's activity. Tragic pages of the past were suppressed or presented unilaterally: history of October revolution, sources and nature of civil war, hunger of the 30th and peasantry destruction. Incompleteness of steps of the poststalin management was shown and that, having returned home Chechens, Ingushs, Kalmyks, Balkars, it didn't rehabilitate Koreans, Germans, the Crimean Tatars and Meskhetian Turks. The made attempts of the analysis of the reasons of economic lag of the country were quickly stopped.
The Central Committee of CPSU and the Soviet government, having carried out in 1954 and 1956 a package of measures directed on elimination of excessive centralization and expansion of the rights of federal republics, a number of the adopted acts nullified the proclaimed growth of the sovereignty. Development of the general line in the field of economy, appointment and shift of shots and many other things remained in hands of a narrow circle of people, the republics remained aloof from them.
Aloof from management of society there were also workers. Still the structure of society was constructed by the principle from above — down at which people needed to carry out only those decisions which were developed at the highest levels. The enthusiasm which has been given rise by a victory over fascist Germany, began to be replaced at the people by fatigue. Surges in public activity were observed most often during the election period in the Supreme Councils. Practically all completeness of the power in hand took the party and economic device. Closely built in a command management system and deprived of the rights, initiatives appeared labor unions and Komsomol. But the people didn't lose faith in the future and hope of the best life.
Began to be suppressed soon and political dissent. The people who were openly pointing to defects of society, pursued. But it was impossible to stop dissent by former methods therefore political charges became more hidden.
Still strictly I supervised CPSU work of Councils, individually I directed work of economic, scientific, educational, army, public institutions and the organizations.
The political policy opened by solutions of 1964, was born on the basis of not justified in the past of approaches to implementation of reforms. On October 1964. Plenum of the Central Committee of CPSU there was a party leadership and country change. The group of figures of the top political management of the USSR in deep secret prepared N. S. Khrushchev removal.
The policy of reforming of economy in 1962 — 1969 testified that to the middle of the 60th there came a limit of changes. Held events didn't provide the large radical transformations mentioning economy. Arising problems were solved by the subjectivistic improvisations calculated generally on effect of organizational reorganizations. Reorganization unreasoned and often replacing each other to bear serious threat of instability, decrease in a standard of living and social guarantees. Situation wasn't facilitated also by idea of communistic prospect.
Unsuccessful attempts of reforming of economy and its militarization, irrational placement of the productive forces, unreasoned and frequent reorganization of a control system by a national economy negatively influenced a naekologichesky situation in the republic. The difficult ecological situation developed in all industrial cities of Kazakhstan, especially in Ust Kamenogorsk, Chimkent, Dzhambul, Alma-Ata. Very serious consequences had tests of the nuclear weapon in Kazakhstan. According to the resolution of Council of ministers of the USSR in 1948 the nuclear range located on a joint of three areas was built: Semipalatinsk, Pavlodar and Karaganda.
The first test of a nuclear charge was carried out on August 29, 1949. The cost of one experimental device and its underground test, according to scientists, on the average makes 30 million rubles. Despite long silence of military, and then attempts to declare impact of the range on population health not inspiring concern, influence of the range on the surrounding nature, a state of health of people was dangerous.
According to S. Balmukhanov, I.Ya.Chasnikova, V.K.Zhadykova's scientists, for years of carrying out nuclear explosions also inhabitants of Semipalatinsk, and also adjacent regions of the Pavlodar, Karaganda areas of Kazakhstan and some regions of the Altai territory of RSFSR repeatedly were exposed to radiation exposure.
The USSR given the Ministry of Defence, from 1949 to 1963 on the range conducted 113 explosions in the atmosphere by a moshchnost from several tons to 100 клт, since 1964, only underground tests were carried out. Till October 19, 1989 on Semipalatinsk the range 343 tests by a moshchnost from several tons to 150 kilotons were carried out.
To doctors and paramedics it was forbidden to make the true diagnosis died from cancer, a leukosis, other diseases connected with ionizing radiation. Medical examinations in the region were forbidden by Ministry of Health of the USSR, and the results received by military physicians were kept deep secret and hid scales of the harm done by activity of the nuclear range. Only since 1962 selective medical examinations of a state of health of the people who have undergone influence of radiation began to be conducted.
Such attitude towards people led to that at the population living near the range, various diseases began to develop. Symptoms of radiation sickness were often fixed at inhabitants of the Abaysky region of Semipalatinsk area, the Egindybulaksky region of the Karaganda region. Separate voices disturbed by influence of the range on health of the population remained a voice crying in the wilderness. The country continued to accumulate the weapon. Secretly from the population, in 1969 — 1970 three underground nuclear explosions and in the territory of Mangyshlaksky area were conducted. Underground nuclear explosions were made in rocks.
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