Beginning and character of the war. Mobilization of forces to repel the enemy.
June 22, 1941 the troops of Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union.
The Nazis regarded the war against the Soviet Union as a crucial step towards the creation of the "German territorial and ethnic monolith" from the Atlantic to Siberia , "purified " from " subhuman " Slavic and Turkic- Mongolian origin, and as a prerequisite for world conquest. Prior to the defeat of England and the United States and settling " monolith" Germans planned to form a Reichskommisariat Oc- tland , Ukraine and Muscovy , the Caucasus, with a kind of self-government. In late 1941 - early 1942. , When it became apparent collapse of plans for a "lightning war" and had to look for ways to reduce the "forces of adhesion" of Soviet republics , there were plans to form , in addition, the bourgeois- националистическиегосударстваИдель -Ural and Grossturkestan and Karaganda , Novosibirsk and Kuznetsk " industrial area".
In the Great Patriotic War of Kazakhstan participated as part of a single country. On the eve of her he had the great human and natural resources of strategic importance. Despite the fact that over the previous two decades, failed to carry out a scheduled giant leap of patriarchal feudalism to socialism , to eliminate the actual economic and cultural inequality of nations, made it a lot.
In a short time the class had been eliminated , and the national . Colonial oppression , illiteracy and backwardness of medieval , made the emancipation of women , the national peace and harmony . Equally important in achieving all of this had the patriotic traditions of the people . The Kazakh people for many centuries, successfully defended the frontiers of their vast steppes. In the years of struggle against colonialism , the three Russian revolutions , the Civil War , on the mammoth construction sites developed and strengthened the friendship of peoples. A huge impact on people assisted anti-fascist propaganda of the prewar years .
But there was also negative in the rapid development - hunger , unfounded repression, destruction of much of the already thin layer of national intelligence , reducing the number of Kazakh population , the beginning of the transformation of the Great Steppe in the area of resettlement repressed nations - all of this has weakened the nations , their minds warped , restrained development and opportunities for the region to strengthen the country's defense .
Committing aggression by the Soviet Union , Nazi ideology is not without reason to hope for the former Soviet regime repressed Whites , rich peasants , capitalists and landlords, all those who are victims of mass terror and violence of the totalitarian regime.
The majority of the Soviet people did not admit the idea of collaborating with the enemy . Devotion to the motherland , patriotism , combined with the political pathos of the discoverers of the new world allowed the broad masses of the population to overcome the corrupting influence of Stalinism and rally in defense of the Fatherland.
According to the 1939 census , the population of Kazakhstan was 6.2 million. The ranks of the army was fighting in the war joined 1,196,164 Kazakhstani. Stalinism , using the experience of Tsarist in 1916, created a labor army and the special construction of the indigenous peoples of Kazakhstan and Central Asia, and the special settlers , which were mobilized from the Kazakh SSR, more than 700 thousand people. Even taking into account location in the country of about 1.5 million people in the front line and repressed peoples percentage was very high mobilization : the front and to the defense industry has been sent to every fourth citizen of the republic . Such a high percentage of mobilization was made possible mainly due to the agricultural nature of the economy and the high specific gravity of the peasantry in the population , the belated introduction of the practice of reservation labor force in the defense sectors of industry and mechanization of agriculture in the Kazakh SSR. The bulk of Kazakhstan joined the active army as a sustainer of replenishment , and about a third were enrolled in the units and formations which were created in the country. It was the 12 rifle and four cavalry divisions , seven brigades , about 50 separate regiments and battalions of various types of troops. Of that number, three cavalry divisions and two infantry brigades were formed as a Kazakh national connections. Created over the mobilization plans mainly of volunteers , they are almost half consisted of communists and Komsomol members and to transfer to the army maintain and uniforms , and many other kinds of supplies , equipment and baggage from the national budget and voluntary contributions capita1 .
The Republic has made a worthy contribution to the training of officers and provisions for the army and flota2 . In military schools for the 1941-1945 years. was sent to more than 42 thousand young Kazakhs , and existed on the territory of the republic 27 military schools let out, according to incomplete statistics , 16 thousand officers .
On a war footing shift the economy of the republic : have been reduced to the minimum costs for peaceful purposes , many businesses have switched to production of defense products, in favor of such enterprises redistributed labor , raw materials, machine equipment .
Brought many difficulties forced the evacuation of people from the front line , production capacity and cultural values. In Kazakhstan in 1941-1942. find shelter , a job, a place in the ranks of workers in the rear 532.5 thousand inhabitants of the western regions . This also came about 970 thousand repatriated Poles nemtsev3 . Most of them were settled in villages and towns. In the cities the same housing problem before the war sharp, aggravated even more: in 1940, one citizen had to 5,1 m. m of living space , in the war years - 4.3 , and in Karaganda - just 2.2 square meters. M.4 .
At 7-15 times reduced admission to the retail trade of food and essential commodities , and the prices in the market have risen to 10-15 raz.5 There was rationing the supply of bread and essential food, expanded network of farms , collective and individual horticulture . The joint efforts of the government , labor groups , inhabitants of the republic managed to solve the food problem. Abundance was not, but at least get all the necessary .
A part of the restructuring was the rear reception and accommodation of the evacuated enterprises . In Kazakhstan arrived and was put into operation 220 factories, shops , cooperatives and industrial combine ( during the war, 20 of nihbyli reevakuirovany ) . The largest number of companies accounted for by the food industry ( 54 plants and factories ) , light and textile industries. They were placed , as a rule , on the basis of related companies . Many evacuees company started work in a hastily adapted rooms , and even under the eaves. Often to new places came barely a tenth of the former group of workers , engineers and technicians. In such conditions, organize the production not only of old products, but also a number of new weapons and ammunition.
In 1941-1943 . , As in the years of collectivization , MTS and state farms was an institution of the political departments , and in the tractor and field team - political instructors . Often, political instructor handed administrative functions , up to bring to justice those " willfully fail to comply with the rules , loafers and disrupters ." Administration and militarization of labor on the farms , the massive employment of women and young people , reducing the technical equipment of village and village , a sharp decline , and many collective essentially cease to workdays , violent contraction of livestock farmers, the introduction of war taxes - all heavily affected situation of workers of village and countryside. In 1943, in the northern regions of the country , and in 1944 - in Aktobe oblast government commissions have worked to help the starving population .
Were expanded rights and responsibilities commissariats and their leaders for the state of affairs in the industry. Decreased number of meetings increased efficiency , efficiency . However, the practice of the cult of personality, the deformation of inner life helped slipping on the path of excessive administration. Affected vicious practice of those years to establish unconstitutional , emergency agencies. For example, in the areas of Semipalatinsk and Akmola regions and created three emergency committee to guide the sowing , on fire , placing evacuees , etc. The party committees Akmola , East Kazakhstan , Karaganda, Pavlodar regions in the first period of the war used methods Communist intimidation , ill administration.
There was a change in the content of the Councils of all levels . First of all, changes were made to the organizational structure of the government. When SNK KazSSR and office areas byliorganizovany distribution of labor , divisions on economic ustroystvuevakuirovannogo population ( in some areas they were called the Extraordinary Commission ) , state security and living conditions of military families by military orders and installation of equipment evacuated . V1944 , with the executive committees of the district, city and province Soviets were created departments of government benefits to large families and single mothers .
During the war efforts of the executive and administrative functions of the Soviets. Widely practiced adoption of binding decisions and orders the mobilization of the unemployed working-age population , the introduction of road haulage service. The population of the cities involved in the work to clean up airfields , fuel removed from the mining sites . The activities of the Soviets in a war characterized by unity of command , centralization of power, good organization , accuracy and efficiency .
Increased administrative and legislative functions of the Soviets and eased the cultural and educational functions . Strengthening the administrative and operational functions of the Soviets, the terms generated by the war, sometimes developed into a bare administration.
During the war, revived women's movement . The creation in 1943 of departments for work among women in the Party committees at enterprises , transport, collective farms and state farms contributed to the 4300 women's councils saturation activity of women in the East defense of the socialist fatherland , to improve the ideological and political education of the working women .
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