Creation of military economy.
The front line didn't reach Kazakhstan even in days of fight on Volga, during the greatest advance of the German armies deep into the USSR. But also the provision of a front zone affected life of its western areas. In September, 1942 in their territory the martial law was declared, in Uralsk and Gurjev the city committees of the defense which have united the power of the government, party and military bodies are formed. Staff and military engineers of the Southern Ural military district defined a tracing of several lines of defense on a case of a crossing of the opponent through Volga and approach continuations to the east. In Uralsk the operational communication center with lines of wires on Gurjev, Astrakhan, Kuibyshev and Tchkalov (Orenburg) that provided steady telecommunication of the Rate with fronts of the southern direction was created. In Gurjev оыла the naval base from several ships Caspian sea and Volga river flotillas, and also coastal parts and services is created. When the German aircraft began raids at Saykhin's station, Shungay, Dzhanibek through which to Stalingrad there were echelons with armies and freights, command allocated three regiments of the 102nd destructive aviadivision of the antiaircraft defense, two regiments of the antiaircraft artillery, four antiaircraft armored trains, four battalions of air supervision, the notification and communication for their cover. Interacting, they brought down in the territory of Kazakhstan about 30 planes противника6.
From the first day of war Kazakhstan became one of front arsenals. It demanded increase in its contribution to all-union economy as in those branches which already were available, and in what should be created anew.
Selflessly coal miners of Karaganda worked. In four years they gave out to the surface 34 million t of coal — on 3 million tons more, than for all the time of existence of the pool. For 39% увеличалась production of liquid fuel at the enterprises of the Uralo-Embinsky oil-extracting area, almost twice increased electric power development.
The republic reserved the leading role in production of copper (35%), lead (85%) and at the same time constructed on the basis of the reconnoitered fields of the enterprise for production, enrichment and smelting of metals — East Коунрадский molybdenic, Dzhezdinsky manganese, Don chromite mines, Akchatausky molibdno-tungsten, Tekeliysky polymetallic combines, etc. Thanks to it it began to give 60% of allied production of molybdenum, 65% — metal bismuth, to 79% — polymetallic ores. The special contribution to achievement of results was made by workers, technicians and engineers B. Aymukhanov, B. Ismagulov, V. Dementyuk, A.Kazakova, D.A.Kosykh, D.A.Kunayev, M.A.Lukyanova, A.Safin, A.M. Sirazutdinova, G. Haydin, their pupils and followers.
In total in 1941 — 1945 460 plants, factories, mines, mines and separate productions were constructed. Into their number entered and the evacuated enterprises, including the metalworking and engineering plants which were letting out mines and shells, torpedoes and bombs, flame throwers, radio stations and other types of weapon and military equipment. Production development, and then and improvement of samples of arms was the focus of attention designers, engineers and the advanced workers of the enterprises: I.A.Aristov, Barikov, Pyshkin, Item X. Carver, L.Ya.Selemeneva, Ya.I.Fefera, N. Shmarina. It promoted growth of quantitative and quality indicators of production. The share of metal working and mechanical engineering in gross output of the industry of Kazakhstan grew with 16 in the 1940th to 35% in 1945.
As a whole industrial production of the republic grew for military years by 37% that is 2% higher than a gain of its production for four presoldiers года9. These results were reached by the price of big tension of work, deprivations and adversities. But war excluded in general or sharply limited possibilities of a choice of ways and methods of the solution of arising tasks and people weren't sorry neither forces, nor means for implementation of requirements of the front.
Sharply working conditions and tasks of workers of agriculture changed. The question of shots appeared the most difficult: about two thirds of total number of the Kazakhstan citizens who have left on the front, were from auls and villages. Women became the main source of replacement of the mobilized men. To the end of war in many collective farms they made to 70 — 80% of all working. Thus the number of the women who have developed in a year of 400 and more workdays, i.e. three times a prevysivshikhobyazatelny minimum — increased with 20 607 in 1940 to 94 202 in 1945.
Even in droughty 1943 zvenyevy "Kurman's" collective farm Aktyubinsk oh C.Bersiyev established to area a world record of productivity of 202 c from hectare of millet, zvenyevy "Vanguard" of the Kyzyl-Orda area I.Zhakhayev of the same success achieved collective farm in cultivation of 172 c from rice hectare, zvenyevy agricultural artels of the III International of the Kaskelensky region of M. Mukhamediyev collected on 600 c from hectare of sugar beet.
Cattle breeders didn't feel sorry for forces, knowledge and experience. Shepherd Z.Mukashev from collective farm of Amangelda of the Dzhezkazgan area annually received and kept to 180 lambs on each one hundred sheep. Tabunshchitsa Sh. Shugaipova from collective farm "талап" the Guryev area without withdrawal more than one thousand horses contained Jean. In the western regions of Kazakhstan nearly 370 thousand beasts from okuppirovanny areas were placed. It was sent to B1943 of back. To keep own livestock and the evacuated cattle, and by the war end even to surpass pre-war indicators in cattle, sheep and goats a little, the timely and well organized transition to a distant-pasture way of the maintenance of part of cattle on remote low-snow sites mainly in a zone of the dry steppe and the semi-desert helped to weaken a labor overstrain of collective farmers. In the first military winter on such sites 2,1 million beasts (24% of its quantity), and in the last — 4,4 million heads (46%) contained.
Rural workers of Kazakhstan fulfilled the patriotic and labor duty: for 1941 — 1945 they gave to the front and the country of 5829 thousand tons of bread, 734 thousand tons of meat and are a lot of other food and raw materials for the industry.
The violent counteraction of personal cattle of members of agricultural artels became an important source of replenishment of a public livestock of cattle in days of war. So, only in heavy 1942 over 600 thousand heads of young growth were bought from collective farmers for completing of collective-farm farms. The livestock of cattle of collective farmers of Kazakhstan from 1940 to 1943 inclusive decreased by two and a half times.
In the conditions of war by minimum necessary forces and means it was kept and even the network of healthcare institutions, national education, culture and science is developed. Doctors and nurses not only provided high percent of return of wounded and patients from hospitals, but also prevented development of flashes sypny and a typhoid and other diseases in epidemic, in last wars carrying away it is more than victims, than perished on fields of battles.
The network of schools of all types practically remained invariable, but the number of pupils, especially in rural areas, was reduced: welfare payments and the help of the public couldn't provide to families of soldiers all needing children in clothes and footwear. From 118 technical schools remained 92, but the contingent of pupils decreased by only 389 people. To 20 higher education institutions of pre-war time it was added four new, and the number being trained in them increased from 10,4до 15 thousand people.
In a smaller measure it was succeeded to keep a network of cultural institutions. Approximately the fourth part of palaces of culture and clubs was переданапод production rooms or hospital. The number of mass libraries and was more than twice reduced by a third — their book fund.
The number of theaters in the republic remained the same, and in their work, as well as in activity of higher education institutions, thanks to cooperation of a local creative power with art workers of Russia and Ukraine, being in evacuation, there was serious high-quality growth, especially in cinematography. With arrival of the Moscow and Leningrad film studios Almaty studio of documentary films reorganized into the Kazakhfilm studio which was letting out works of a various genre. As the powerful spiritual weapon multinational literature of the people of Kazakhstan served. Works about heroes of the front and the back were written by such masters, as Dzhambul Dzhabayev, M. Auezov, S. Mukanov, D. Snegin, I.Shukhov and young writers B. Bulkishev, N. Zharmagambetov, D. Muldagaliyev, S. Maulenov, S. Seitov. Some of them were on a front line.
In the years of war the science of Kazakhstan promptly developed. By March, 1942 scientists made offers and development on 150 subjects of economic and defensive value. Especially fruitfully the scientists-geologists who have opened about 500 and surveying 150 mineral deposits the part from which accustomed at once worked. In 1941 — 1945 гт. in the republic opened 12 new scientific institutes and their branches, and the number of research associates increased with 152 to 864 people. All this created предпосыли for reorganization of the Kazakhstan branch of Academy of Sciences of the USSR in Academy of Sciences Kazakh the Soviet Socialist Republic that was legally complete in June, 1946. The known geologist, academician K. I.Satpayev who investigating a subsoil of Dzhezkazgan and has created science about forecasting of searches of minerals became her first president.
The significant role in development of science was played by cooperation of the republics. Near scientists of Kazakhstan collectives more than 20 scientific institutions of Moscow, Leningrad, Kiev and other cities of the country and such world famous scientists as academicians I. P. Vernadsky, V.A.Obruchev, A.M. Pankratov, A.A.Skochinsky, etc. worked.
Wide scope was gained by the voluntary help to the front. The fund of defense made of patriotic contributions of the population, by October, 1943 reached 185,5 million rubles money and the handed-over bonds worth 193,6 million rubles. Campaign for acquisition on means of patriots of tanks, planes, submarines — as single, addressed to specific soldiers, and the whole columns and squadrons began fall of 1941. In total on weapon creation from Kazakhstan 480 million rubles arrived, and together with the cost of bonds of military loans and tickets of cash and prize lotteries voluntary contributions of the population of the republic to needs of the front reached 4700 million rubles that covered direct military costs in two weeks of war.
The help warm clothes, especially in the first military winter was considerable. In the republic from the population nearly 2,5 million warm things, including 11,5 thousand short fur coats and 312 thousand couples valenoks arrived. Besides, 1600 cars with individual and collective gifts to soldiers were delivered to the front, sometimes by special delegations of areas or the republics. Their meetings with defenders of the Homeland, as well as each of 1216 concerts given by actors of Kazakhstan in the front wood, underground club or in a blindage on a first line, poured out in bright demonstration of unity of the front and the back.
Strengthening of unity of the front and the back, friendship of the people was promoted also population census of east areas with veterans, and also by measures for assistance to families of soldiers, care of wounded and disabled people, many-sided disinterested aid of areas глубокоготыла to the population of freed areas. The republic was a patron of some regions of the Leningrad and Moscow areas, of the cities and the villages of Orlovshchina. Only in 1943 from the resources Kazakhstan sent to the Krasnodar and Stavropol regions of Russia and east areas of Ukraine of 2700 tractors, 123 combines, 880 seeders and 2500 plows, cattle, food and clothes. All this delivered to a place and remained to restore economy of 295 combine operators, 636 foremen of tractor crews, 155 mechanics, 115 agronomists, 65 directors of MTS.
The help of the back to the front not only improved living conditions of fighters, but also lifted their fighting spirit, readiness to do everything possible and impossible for defeat of the enemy.
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