Establishment of Soviet power and its first steps in economic and cultural development.
Continuing, in essence, policy of imperial autocracy, the Provisional government in Kazakhstan couldn't resolve an ethnic issue and didn't strive for the solution of an agrarian question. Question of self-determination, or autonomy of Kazakhs, as well as other oppressed people, it didn't try to put at all. This was the reason that A. Bukeikhanov publicly announced his withdrawal from the party of the Cadets in the "Kazakh" newspaper. He emphasized three moments: "The party of cadets stands up for transfer of the earth to a private property. Transfer of the earth to private hands under our conditions will lead to that after a while as it happened in Bashkiria, grounds will pass to the next man, and Kazakhs will turn into beggars. The party of cadets opposes a national autonomy. We, having lifted Alash's banner, we seek to form a national autonomy... The party of cadets opposes separation of church from the state, and I support separation of church from the state. Disagreements on these three positions... distinctly came to light. Therefore I decided to leave party of cadets and to organize Alash party.
In these conditions leaders of the Kazakh liberal movement, considering quickly changing situation and the accelerated process of polarization of political forces, made the decision to accelerate conduction the all-Kazakh congress.
The first All-Kazakh Congress, which was attended by representatives from almost all regions of Kazakhstan took place in the city of Orenburg 21-26 July 1917. On the agenda there were 14 questions: a system of government; autonomy of Kazakh regions, the land issue, the organization of people's militia, the district council; public education; court; spiritual and religious issues, women's issues, the convening of a Constituent Assembly and preparation for the elections to the Kazakh fields; All-Russian Muslim Congress, formation of the Kazakh political party; Semirechensk developments in the field; participation of Kazakh-Russian federal council in Kiev and work of the commission on public education in St. Petersburg.
The main attention is paid to the problem of national delegates autonomy, land issues, the preparation of the Constituent Assembly and the formation of the Kazakh political party.
A month before the start of the Congress in the newspaper "Kazakh" published a series of articles in which there were different points of view on the question of autonomy. In the June 24 issue of the newspaper wrote : "If it is clear that autonomy is necessary, what form would be most convenient for the Kazakhs - state or federal autonomy autonomy ? If we come to a form of regional autonomy , then what will be its basis - the territory or particular cultures or particular nationality? Will the Kazakhs claim independence , or will achieve it in alliance with other nations? "8.
Baitursynov A. and M. Dulatov called for the creation of an independent Kazakh Autonomous State. Bukeikhanov preferred the Kazakh national- territorial autonomy " in a democratic, federal and parliamentary Russian republic." This view is supported by the majority . "Kazakh region - said in a resolution of the Congress - should receive ... territorial and national autonomy "
The central point of the congress was the land question . The main provisions of the resolution of the Congress on the issue boiled down to the following: land acquisition of Kazakh society ceases ; all confiscated land and unallocated land resettlement offices of returning Kazakh communities in the traditional use ; immigration into the steppe terminated by the introduction of qualification , etc.
The congress discussed the preparations for the Constituent Assembly , the list of candidates was introduced 81 people - representatives from all regions of Kazakhstan and the Kazakh communities of Bukhara, Khiva and Fergana . Among them were the leaders of the newspaper "Kazakh" , the leaders of the Kazakh national liberal movement Bukeikhanov A. , A. Baitursynov, regional leaders : A. Ermekov , X. Gabbassov (Semipalatinsk ), J. Dosmukhamedov , X.
Dosmukhamedov (West Kazakhstan ), M. Tynyshpaev ( Seven Rivers ), M. Chokaev , S. J. Asfendi - Jarov ( Turkestan ) . Among the candidates were also Russian scientist G. Potanin and politician V. Chaikin .
On the decision of the Congress had a strong influence Kazakh intellectuals grouped around the newspaper " Kazakh" . With this narrowed the ability to influence the Muslim clergy in the Kazakh population : clerical courts were eliminated , replaced them had entered the legal framework , the women had to have equal rights with men , denied dowry . Education was to be binding and subject to civil authorities.
However, the decision of the Congress provided for the establishment of an independent muftiat in Orenburg to control Akmola, Semipalatinsk , Turgay , Ural regions and Kazakh regions Trans-Caspian region .
The first All-Kazakh Congress , in fact, constituted itself in the Kazakh national political party "Alash" . In his judgment stated : " Recognising the necessary education of Kazakh party , Congress instructs the representatives of the All-Russian Muslim Kazakhs Council to develop a program of the party , and the basis of a political program must be taken requirement ( established in Russia ), Democratic Republic of the federal parliament ," 10 . The leaders of the party " Alash " were Alikhan Bukeikhanov , Ahmet Baitursynov and other representatives of the Kazakh intelligentsia bourgeois- democratic direction , it was the Liberal Party baystva and petty-bourgeois democracy.
In the game of "Alash" included representatives of scientific and creative intelligentsia Tynyshpaev M. , M. Zhumabaev , Sh Kudaiberdiev , G. Karashev , S. Toraigyrov , X. Gabbassov , A. Ermekov , J. and X. Dosmukhamedov , etc. The vast majority of them in leta1917 was not embraced socialist program , Kazakh society as a whole was not gotovok etomu.Oni obedinilispod slogan : "Release of the Kazakh people from the colonial yoke ! ".
In autumn 1917, in Kazakhstan there was another national political organization - the party of "Ush - Juz ', which called itself " the Kirghiz (Kazakh) Socialist Party. " Its leader was Kolbay Togus . The party was of the pro-Bolshevik orientation and been the main opponent of the party " Alash" on many issues of social and political life of Kazakhstan.
In the late summer - early autumn of 1917 , the country began the widespread shift to the left of the masses , which was the result of the growing influence of the Bolsheviks in the soviets , in its ethnic composition representing predominantly Russian organization.
The defeat kornilovschintsy disorganized and weakened the forces of counter-revolution , raised the prestige of the Bolsheviks. Across the country, the Soviets began bolshevization . In this regard , the Bolshevik Party again put forward the slogan "All power to the Soviets! " Temporarily removed after the events of July 1917 Now this slogan is a call for an armed uprising and the overthrow of the Provisional Government , to the establishment of the dictatorship of the proletariat.
October 24 ( November 6) in 1917 in Petrograd began an armed rebellion. The next day the rebels workers, soldiers and sailors captured the most important objects of the capital. The morning of October 25 ( November 7), the Military Revolutionary Committee announced that the interim government has been overthrown .
The victory of the October armed uprising in Petrograd and the establishment of Soviet power in the center , as well as in neighboring Kazakhstan, large cities , Tashkent , Omsk, Orenburg, Astrakhan have been crucial to the transition of all power to the Soviets in Kazakhstan. However, the establishment of Soviet power in Kazakhstan dragged on for four months - from late 1917 to marta1918 This process was complicated by the difficulties generated by the socio -economic and cultural backwardness of the region, and the weakness of the small number of local working class and bolshevistskihorganizatsy , the complexity of international relations . A decisive role in the victory of Soviet power in the region played a local soldiers
garrisons , united in the Soviets of Soldiers' Deputies, and byvshiefrontoviki who have returned to Kazakhstan after the February Revolution and customized maximalist personally interested vovlasti that promised them the world , and the peasantry - the ground.
The situation was aggravated by the stubborn resistance of the so -called military governments of the Urals , Semirechensk , Siberia and the Orenburg Cossack troops , as well as congestion in the various ' cities of Kazakhstan (especially in Uralsk ) escaped from the central regions of the deposed Provisional Government.
In most areas of the Syr Darya , and Akmola regions Bukeyev Horde , where the forces led by the Bolsheviks, had a decisive advantage , and supporters of the Provisional Government were unable to put up armed resistance to the Soviet power won by peaceful means , by the conquest of the workers and poor peasants of a stable majority in the Soviets .
The situation was different in the Turgay , Ural , Semipalatinsk and partly in Semirechensk areas , where supporters of the Provisional Government had considerable strength . In many areas, particularly in the regional centers and county towns, Soviet power was established forces of the Red Guard detachments and probolshevists - FIR local garrisons of soldiers by the armed uprising and suppression of local resistance forces of the Provisional Government and its allies.
Since the end of October 1917 to March 1918 the Soviet power was established mainly in cities and other large cities punktahKazahstana . In the bulk of villages and the villages of Kazakhstan the process of the establishment of Soviet power lasted until the outbreak of the Civil War. The most active part in the taking of AT Dzhangildin , S.Seifullin , K. Sutyushev , A. Asylbekov , B. Serikba s , A. Maykut , I. Dubinin , KA Shugaev , Y. Wu Shan SM Zwilling , A. Imanov Ryskulov T. , P. Vinogradov, T. Bokin , LP Emel , T. Utepov , A. et al Rozybakiev
Along with the establishment of the Soviet regime took steps to transform the economy and the culture was injected control in industrial plants ( plant on Spassky , Karaganda mines, Assumption mine at Emba oil fields , etc.) was nationalized a number of industrial enterprises and banks. Have been carried out the first steps to implement the Decree on Land , adopted at the II All-Russian Congress of Soviets. With the support of Lenin in Petrograd workers organized in East Kazakhstan three communes: "The first Russian society a farmer - communists" , "The Second Russian society is a farmer - Communists" and commune "Sunny ."
The decisions of the Soviet authorities , regional councils and district conventions the Decree on Land supplemented and developed to suit local conditions and initiatives of the peasants themselves .
With the victory of the October Revolution, the island became discuss national issues , especially issues of nation-building . The basic principles of the national policy of the Soviet government were declared in two important documents of the Soviet government - the Declaration of Rights of the Peoples of Russia ( November 2, 1917 ) and in the treatment of the Soviet Government "To All Working Moslems of Russia and the East" ( 20 November 1917 ) .
The adopted III All-Russian Congress of Soviets ( January 1918 ) , " Declaration of the Rights of the Working and Exploited People ," written by Lenin , has found its concentrated expression of the principled position of the Communist Party of the Soviet federation as a form of government in the Soviet republics. " The Russian Soviet Republic , stated in the Declaration - is established on the basis of a free union of free nations , as a federation of Soviet national republics"
Following the formation of the RSFSR , work on the creation of new autonomous republics in the East of the country. Bolshevik organization tips Kazakhstan and Turkestan began preparations for the convening and vseturkestanskogo All-Kazakh Congress of Soviets . The preparatory work for the convening of Kazakh Congress of Soviets proceeded simultaneously with the process of consolidation of Soviet power. In practice this meant that the struggle for strengthening it was at the same time a struggle for the formation of the Soviet state . With such a turn of events could not accept national party "Alash" and its leaders have not accepted the idea of the October Revolution and the formation of the Kazakh Soviet statehood basis.
Long before the October Revolution, the leaders of the Kazakh liberal- democratic movement widely propagate their views on the program of socio- economic and political development of Kazakhstan, and immediately after the revolution in Petrograd in the newspaper "Kazakh" November 21 published a draft program of the party " Alash ", compiled Alikhan Bukeikhanov , Ahmet Baitursynov Mirzhakyp Dulatov Eldesom Gumarov , Esengaliem Turmuhamedovym , Gabdulahmitom Zhundibaevym and Gazimbekom Birimzhanovym . The draft program consisted of ten items. The most significant of these are:
«I. Polity . Russia should be a democratic Federal Republic of ... Each member state of the Federal Republic , being the independent acts in union with other states - members of the federation ...
II. Local freedom . The autonomy of the Kazakhs is composed of the areas inhabited by them , and is part of the Russian Federal Republic ... The party " Alash" is an advocate of justice for the poor was carrying - friends, bloodsuckers - the enemies ...
III.Osnovnoe right . In the Russian Republic, all are equal without distinction of religion , origin or gender.
In the Russian republic there is equality, security of person , freedom of speech , press, association ...
IV. Religion . Religion is separated from the state. All religiiravnopravny ... Kazakhs should be your muftiat ...
V. Power and judgment . The power of the court and shall be built in accordance sosobennostyami every nation. Bii and the judge should know yazykmestnogo people ... In areas where Kazakhs are the majority , the language of the court is Kazakh .
VI. Protecting people. To protect people's army should be ... Kazakhs serving in the form of mounted police .
VII.Nalog . Levy is the degree of wealth iimuschestvennogo condition; rich pay more , the poor - less.
VIII. Working . Workers should be protected by law ... The party " Alash" support in this matter Menshevik program ,
of the Social Democrats.
IX. The development of science and education. Education should bytdostoyaniem all . Education in all schools , primary schools besplatnoe.V teaching should be conducted in the native yazyke.Kazahi should be in the native language secondary schools and universities. Educational institutions should be autonomous , the government does not interfere with the learning ...
X. The land issue . In formulating the law of the land in the Constituent Assembly based land ownership should fall primarily indigenous population to ensure the Kazakh population of the earth at the resettlement sites of the peasants in the Kazakh lands must be stopped ; unpopulated areas previously selected in the resettlement fund land to be returned to the Kazakhs '
The program has provided the party " Alash" a great success in the elections to the Constituent Assembly and brought together representatives of various sectors of the Kazakh people at the Second All-Kazakh Congress , held on 5-12 December 1917 in Orenburg.
The conference, chaired by the Chairman of the Presidium Bahytkereem Kulmanov and his deputies Alikhan Bukeikhanov , Azimhanom Kenesarina , Hallel Dosmukhamedov and Omar Karashaevym , discussed various aspects of the Party's tactics in a rapidly changing political environment , paying attention to the issues of education Kazakh autonomy and the formation of its government.
The Congress decided that in the Kazakh autonomy must enter Bukei Horde , Ural , Turgay , Akmola , Semipalatinsk regions , areas of Trans-Caspian region and the Altai province , inhabited by Kazakhs . Congress delegates stated that after the overthrow of the Provisional Government of each day increases the growth of anarchy in the towns and villages in the desert , threatening the very existence of the Kazakhs. Therefore, " in order to save agreed to form a strong power in the face of a" provisional National Council ", giving it the name
Alash Orda (the government of Alash Autonomy ), and requested the Alash Orda immediately take over the whole executive power over the Kazakh population ".
The Congress has developed a plan for the establishment of the Kazakh militia. It provided a certain amount for each area , training and supply by counties . Providing police weapon was to be done by the central administration , with funding through taxation . It was decided to train officers to use the experience and the help of the Orenburg Cossacks, which suggested an alliance with the Whites of the Orenburg region , led by Ataman Dutov . Although this union was largely formal and ineffective, he complicated the situation Alash Orda .
Created Dzhangildin Ufa in the southern Urals by the Red squad with Kobyzeva and P. Pavlov January 18, 1918 captured Orenburg. Together with Dutov left Orenburg and alashordyntsy , and not having to create one Kazakh autonomy. Their forces disintegrated : the part called the eastern department, moved to the suburbs , the Alash Semipalatinsk ( Semey Jean ), another Zhympity settled in the Ural region ( Western Division ) , and the third acted Semirechensk area. In these circumstances, the party leadership "Alash" was forced to go to the contacts with the central Soviet government and its local authorities : A. Bukeikhanov sent to Moscow X. and J. Dosmukhamedov a meeting with Lenin and the People's Commissar for Nationalities Stalin and Halel Gabbassov on behalf of A. Bukeikhanov 20 March 1918 negotiated by telegram to Stalin . Their result was the center of the promise of financial help for the cultural needs of the future autonomy , a proposal calling Kazakh Congress and the establishment of civil peace in the region .
During the period of Soviet power relations party " Alash" with the new authorities have not switched from contacts to compromise. In a number of cities - Petropavlovsk Perovsk (now Kyzyl -Orda) , Aulie -Ata (now Zhambyl ), where local councils the power was in the hands of radical elements of the RSDLP ( b) , the activists of " Alash" were repressed only in Semipalatinsk, Vern ( Almaty ) and in some drugihmestahudalos establish a fragile , short-lived partnership . Thus, in the Semipalatinsk Regional Council were introduced one of the leaders of the local organization of Alash X. Gabbassov , chairman of the county zemstvo Kazbagorov , of the county council - the activists of " Alash" Sarsenov B. and J. Alimbekov . In this case, the parties do not trust each other , because each pursuing its own political goals : Tips wanted by the leaders and activists of the party " Alash" , attracted to the structures of power, increase the influence of the Kazakh population , and the leaders of "Alash" , formally supporting the Soviets , through their representative to the Board conducted a policy of " blurring " of the new government from the inside.
Otherwise, the party formed relationships "Ush - Horde " with the Soviet government , led by the Bolsheviks. Political views and action leader "Ush Horde " Togusova Kolb and his associates have undergone significant changes since the autumn of 1917 until the beginning of 1918 ushzhuzovtsy If the first line of support for the alliance with the Socialist Revolutionary Party , then in January 1918 were actively involved in work on the establishment and strengthening of Soviet power in the field. Since the beginning of 1918 ushzhuzovtsy objectively Bolsheviks became allies in their fight against alashordyntsami . Despite these challenges , the government of Alash Orda for a few months (December 1917 - March 1918 . ), Using the neutrality of the Cossacks and the weakness of the Bolsheviks led by the Soviets in the field, have taken steps to establish an administrative structure in the areas started to form militia . But the outbreak of the civil war will soon set up a new military- political situation in Kazakhstan , in which accelerated the polarization of opposing forces.
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