Revolt of 1837 — 1847 under the leadership of khan Kenesary
In the first quarter of the XIX century the imperial government started carrying out in Kazakhstan of the administrative and political innovations, aiming to attach those regions of edge which didn't enter yet into the Russian Empire. The charter about the Siberian Kazakhs of 1822 radically changed structure of management of steppe areas, entering district system according to which the Kazakh society is divided into the district, the volost, an aul. Aul as a local administrative unit, I incorporated from 50 to 70 tilt carts, 10 — 12 such auls formed the volost, 10 — 15 volosts — the district which had a certain territory. The senior sultans for whom the government kept the administrative power, were generally urged to provide consolidation of a position of the government. At the head of volosts there were the volost sultans equated to officials of the 12th category, at the head of auls aulny foremen, in the rights equated to rural heads. From maintaining court биев the most essential prerogatives began to be withdrawn.
Karkaralinsk (in the former possession of Bukey khan) and Kokshetau (in the former possession of khan Uali) districts began for gradual capture by tsarism of the Kazakh lands on a joint of Middle and Senior shoes. There was a narrowing of traditional nomaic settlements of Kazakhs, resettlement of the Cossack population to fertile areas extended. The discontent of the Kazakh population which was grouped round descendants of Abylay khan grew. One of Chingizids Gabaydulla the sultan was seized with retaliatory group and banished in Berezov and came back from the Siberian imprisonment only in November, 1840 thanks to persistent requirements of sultan Kenesary.
The sultan Sarzhan, son Kasym-tore united separate groups and opposed policy of colonization of the Kazakh lands. Tesnimy imperial retaliatory groups sultan Sarzhan with the adherents removed to borders of the Kokandsky khanate, hoping to get support kokandsky бека. Here in 1836 Sarzhan was rascally killed according to instructions of the Kokand governor, in 1840 Kasym-tore — Kenesary's father and other his relatives were lost. Nadezhda Kasym sultan on support Kokand beks in its fight against colonial aspirations of tsarism didn't justify. However, fight of sultan Kasym and his sons, despite spontaneous, unorganized character, had important value in the subsequent consolidation of anti-colonial forces under leadership of the sultan, then khan Kenesary (1802-1847).
Kenesary Kasymov acted on the historical arena as the successor of business of Abylay khan in conditions when owing to massive performances of imperial armies threat over independence of three regions of Kazakhstan which, despite adoption of charters about the Siberian and Orenburg Kazakhs of 1822 — 1824, continued to keep political isolation hung. Therefore a main goal of the risen sultan was restoration of integrity of territorial borders of Kazakhstan of times of Abylay khan, abolition of "sofas" (as in its letters the districts founded in Kazakhstan in 20 — the 30th of the XIX century are designated), preservation of full independence of the lands which haven't a part of Russia.
The main requirements of "the rebellious sultan" are accurately defined in his numerous letters addressed to emperor Nikolay I, the Orenburg governors V.A.Perovskomu, V.A.Obruchev, the Siberian governor, prince P. D. Gorchakov, the chairman of the Orenburg boundary commission A.F.Gensa, etc. Neither the Gabay-dulla-sultan, nor his brother Sarzhan can't get up in one row from Kenesary Kasymov who, in opinion, M. Krasovsky "conceding to the grandfather (Abylay) in mind, but surpassing and his and father (Kasym-tore) by energy of character, became known in all steppe".
As "the dexterous, peculiar politician" Kenesara Kasymov's sultan realized that fight against such powerful power as Russia, demands association of forces of three Kazakh shoes, considerable victims, use not only military, but also diplomatic efforts. It cruelly suppressed willfulness of certain sultans, foremen, biys, broken away from national movement, strictly finished with those who supported policy of Russia, but remained the supporter of the peace solution of misunderstanding with the imperial government. Tolerantly treated prisoners of war, including Russians, some of which served at it, delicately accepted the Russian messengers and in character didn't find cruelty unless shown in the period of an antagonism with Kyrgyz though fits of anger concerning those who betrayed interests of revolt, I broke military discipline, were frequent. The poem "Kenesary-Nauryzbay" which author the poet, soldier Nysanbay, actively participated in this movement testifies to it, in particular.
Kenesary achieved association of feudal groups, tribal divisions though this goal wasn't reached even in the peak of liberating fight in 1844 — 1845. From the very beginning of revolt the Kazakh nobility was divided into two contradictory camps: the part which has been treated kindly by the government, relying on support of colonial administration, achieved destruction of the political opponents. The senior sultan of the Akmolinsky district Konyrkulzha Kudaymendin, sultans — governors Younger zhuz Akhmed and Mukhamed Dzhantyurin, Aychuvakova's sultans were Kenesary's irreconcilable opponents. After Kenesary's transition to Zhetysu concerning the risen sons Abylay hana Ali, Suyuk, relatives of the leader of liberating fight adhered to a hard line.
And still Kenesara Kasymov managed to unite under the banner considerable part of the Kazakh childbirth of three shoes. Sometimes the number of its armies reached 20000 people. The most part of the Kazakh sultans, mainly Average clan, adjoined revolt. According to the data collected by judicial penal facilities of Omsk regional board, only in Kushmurunsky, Kokchetav, Akmolinsky, Karkaralinsky and Bayanaulsky districts risen supported over 80 sultans, biys, foremen. With 23-year age, actively participating in liberation movement, having convinced of malignancy of the line which has led to death of brothers and the father, Kenesary refused negotiations with the kokandsky Kushbegi oppressing Kazakhs in lower reaches of Syr-Darya though supported friendship with the Bukhara emir sometimes supplying it with gunpowder, the weapon.
Revolt of Kazakhs from the very beginning got general scale. This only revolt in the history of liberation movements of the end by XVIII and in the XIX century which captured all main areas of moving of the Kazakh childbirth: except rodoplemenny associations of the Middle zhuz, childbirth took part in it Younger zhuz Shekty, Tabyn, Alshyn, Shumeky, Zhappas, etc., the Senior zhuz — Uisun, Dulat, etc.
Driving force of revolt were Kazakh shaura. In fight for restoration of political independence participated both privates, and foremen, and sultans. General fight against military colonization of the Kazakh earth, domination kokandsky beks gave to movement liberating character. However, not all of Biya, foremen, sultans were consecutive in Kenesary's support: in process of a re-deployment and transition of the main forces to other areas the separate groups completed on patrimonial signs, departed from the risen. Among leaders of groups there were known national batyrs: Agybay, Iman (Amangelda Imanova's grandfather), Basygara, Angal, Zhanaydar, Zheka, Suranshy, Bayseit, Zholaman Tlenshiyev, Bukharbay, etc. The structure of participants was international: Russians, Uzbeks, Kyrgyz, Poles, etc.
Kenesary's military operations I began in the spring of 1838 a siege and burning of Akmolinsky strengthening. The commandant of fortress to army foreman Karbyshev and the senior sultan of the Akmolinsky district to colonel Konyrkulzha Kudaymendin hardly managed to get out of the burned fortress. Soon the risen moved to the area Turgaya. In letters to Kenesara's Orenburg officials declares this step the desire, having removed is closer to Orenburg, to facilitate negotiating. Actually the sultan aimed to extend revolt on Younger жуз, directly adjoining Russia where in 1836 — 1838 there was a revolt under the leadership of Isataya Taymanov. Tort-karintsy, shumekeevets, tabynets and other childbirth under the leadership of batyr Zholaman Tlenshiyev joined the risen. Movement captured also Younger zhuz. Negotiations, as one would expect, didn't yield results.
In September, 1841 representatives of three Kazakh shoes elected Kenesara Kasymov the khan. The Kazakh khanate was restored. In August, 1841 the risen besieged fortresses Sozak, Zhanakorgan, Joint stock company-Mschst, Zhulek where significant forces of kokandets were billeted. The capture of several Kokand strengthenings inspired the risen. Even tortkarinets and the chiklinets wandering far from the main centers of revolt, notified about recognitions it Kazakh khan.
Speaking about active participation of tortkarinets and chiklinets on Kenesary Kasymov's party, it is necessary to pay attention to incentive factors which intensified their actions at the end of 30 — the beginning of the 40th of the XIX century. We mean aspiration of the Kazakh childbirth of the region to bring a contribution to the common cause of preservation of isolation of the Kazakh lands not only from approaching Colonial captures from the Russian Empire, but also to be exempted from domination Kokand beks. The sharpening of relationship of Kenesary and the Kokand khanate was caused also by personal motives of the Kazakh sultan. Perfidious murder by to-kandsky governors of his brother, one of leaders of revolt of Kazakhs of party of a colonial policy of tsarism of sultan Sarzhan in 1836, treacherous execution in 1840 Kasym-tore, the brothers of sultans of Esengeldy, Alzhan and others Abylayev blood also hardened an anti-Kokand position of the leader movement. About it, in particular, Kenesary wrote in one of the letters to Orenburg governor. From the very beginning of liberating fight to the death of Kenesary khan concerning the Kokand khanate adhered to the accurate line — release from the oppression of Kokand governors. A little policy of the Kazakh khan in his relationship with the Bukhara emir and the Khivan khan with whom Kenesary maintained quite confidential relations differed. The Khivan governor sometimes supplied the Kazakh groups with guns, gunpowder. According to military historian V. Potto, these states were ready to sign from Kenesary mutually acceptable union.
All these circumstances to a certain extent predetermined character of policy of Kenesara concerning neighboring countries, had impact on structure of administrative management of its khanate.
The state created by the khan of Kenesary was feudal, extending the power on all territory of Kazakhstan, except for areas along the line of Irtysh, Ishim, Ural where the colonial power of the empire was approved. Taxation was ordered: zyaket— for cattle-farmers, ushur — for plowmen. War continuation with imperial groups demanded material and other means that, naturally, led to increase in tax burden.
Kenesary's state encouraged transition of Kazakhs to agriculture. Besides other circumstances it was dictated by the need of providing the risen auls bread in the conditions of control toughening from imperial administration over trade caravans. The bread intended for risen, was confiscated, dealers with the risk, delivering bread risen, were attracted to severe responsibility.
Kenesary's trade policy underwent considerable changes. Seeing that duties from merchant caravans bring in considerable incomes, the khan stopped plunder of caravans, personally accepted sometimes a caravan-bashi, assessing with a surtax of those who evaded from payment of duty for transportation of goods.
The state system was transformed. Khan's council as the supreme advisory body consisted of devoted batyrs, biys, sultans, relatives. The main thread reins of government remained in Kenesary's hands. Khan's council included generally people, true to interests of the liberating fight, shown personal courage, diplomatic abilities.
The special service of management watched distribution, an explanation and performance in auls of decisions, appeals of Khan's council. Being in the head of state of Kenesary encouraged attraction to management of the persons who have shown uncommon personal qualities, despite of their origin.
The khan constantly addressed with letters to officials of Russia, Central Asia. It attached to the organization of diplomatic service extremely important significance. His letters, addresses differ with the accurate concrete contents, argumentativeness of requirements. At reception of the Russian diplomats Gern, Dolgov, the baron of Ur, known merchants were shown by a diplomatic step.
Being the supporter of centralization of the power in the khanate, Kenesary tried to exclude contentions between influential feudal lords, I condemned barymta, strictly I punished responsible ones for intergeneric collisions. Kenesary managed to organize the efficient militia which separate groups members of the Council of War, the well-known batyrs led. Divided into hundreds and thousands, Kenesary's armies were adapted for conditions of dragged-out steppe war. The strict discipline, entered Kenesary, allowed it to provide gathering of soldiers in rather short term. Kenesary entered in the armies distinctions. Numerous sources confirm that the leader of revolt carried gilded officer epaulets of the Russian army.
Kenesary skillfully used the agents delivering to it necessary data. Thanks to such information, the khan beforehand knew plans of military movement of retaliatory forces that gave the chance to it to avoid human losses. Tactics of conducting military operations of Kenesary is in detail described in official reports, reports, reports of the colonel of Dunikovsky, army foreman Lebedev, in works of historians of the last century of N. Sereda, V. Potto, L.Meyer and other.
Having become at the head of the khanate, Kenesary more resolutely, than before, I continued fight for release of the Kazakh lands. Suzak, Kenesaryintended not only to broaden with a capture of Kokandsky fortress the war zone, but also to revenge for death of the relatives.
Active participation of Kazakhs of three zhuzs in anti-colonial fight strongly disturbed tsarism. It was decided to conduct large-scale fight against the risen. Signing the resolution that in one state there can't be other state, Nikolay I authorized on June 27, 1843 a large-scale military campaign against Kenesary. The group of army foreman Lebedev among 300 people had to become the advanced force, later the number of his group reached 1900 people; in August, 1843 the second group headed by the sultan was equipped. Battle of warring parties didn't yield on August 7, 1843 to the government desirable results. The armed group headed by the colonel Bizanov, without having met the main forces risen, came back to Orsk fortress. Kenesary, well knowing edge, passed in attack in the night of July 21, 1844 totally broke group of sultan Zhantorin. Army foreman Lebedev for a sluggishness and not rendering the immediate help was discharged of command of military group. The main forces of Kenesary inspired by a victory attacked on August 14, 1844 Ekaterina's village, burned the suburb, 40 people took away into capture.
For revolt suppression from Orenburg the group of the colonel Dunikovsky moved, and the Siberian group of armies was headed by general Zhemchuzhnikov. Kenesary it was succeeded to escape prosecution of imperial groups. Governmental circles were captured by confusion, Besides long war from Kenesary distracted forces and means of the government. War didn't promise a fast victory. In addition to it between the Orenburg governor P. A.Perovskim and Siberian P. D. Gorchakov there were friction concerning fight ways from Kenesary. Perovsky I stood up for the solution of the conflicts by negotiations, Bitterlings — for military version of the solution of a question.
The Orenburg administration considered necessary to direct Dolgov and Gern's embassy which according to the received instructions laid down unacceptable conditions before Kenesara: risen it was allowed to wander within the limited region determined by the government. Imperial envoys, without having achieved a goal, were compelled to come back. Thus Debts informed the Orenburg administration Kenesara's requirement that he will agree to accept protectorate of Russia only in case all Russian strengthenings are destroyed, taken lands are returned to Kazakhs, robberies and violence in the steppe will stop.
The government sought to force out khan Kenesara from the Orenburg edge, having constructed some strengthenings near the Aral and Syr-Darya pool. Clamped from Kenesara's two parties it was compelled to leave Sara Arch (Gold steppe) and the revolt perene-sti-center in Senior zhuz.
The Siberian authorities for anticipation of arrival of groups of Kenesara to the region under the guise of carrying out population census and cattle directed in Zhetysa significant forces with artillery under team of the Chairman of the Siberian border management of the general Vishnevsky. Under pressure outreaching Kenesary's forces I passed to the right coast of river. Or and from there I removed to the foothills of Ala Tau, having created threat to Kyrgyz. Batyrs of the Senior zhuz Surantsy, Bayseit, Tayshibek supported Kenesary. Risen came nearer to lands of Kyrgyz. Initial anti-colonial nature of revolt underwent changes. The khan demanded submission to himself North Kyrgyz manaps. Kyrgyz manaps Ormon, Zhantay and Zhangarach called kurultai of representatives of tribes Sarybagash, to Bug, Sayak, Solto, Cherik and other tribes and refused to fulfill requirements of the Kazakh khan. In April, 1847 of Kenesara intruded in Kyrgyzstan, having 10 000 armies. Collisions with Kyrgyz happened in a mountain hollow of the Lake Issyk Kul and upper courses of river of Choo. Near Tokmak in Kenesary's last unequal fight together with 32 Kazakh sultans I died. Defeat and death of the khan created a favorable situation for further advance of the Russian groups towards Zailiysky edge and Northern Kyrgyzstan, having facilitated accession of these territories to the Russian Empire.
In Kenesary Kasymov's revolt there are a lot of contradictions: war with the Kokand khanate (the having purpose release of Kazakhs), on the one hand, and fratricidal war with Kyrgyz — with another, cruelty in relation to the Kazakh childbirth, refused to it in support.
The largest people's liberation revolt of the Kazakh people in the XIX century, aiming restoration of feudal statehood of the khan, and ended this time with defeat, having left an indelible trace in memory of the people of Central Asia and Kazakhstan. Kenesary's fight, his boundless devotion to interests of the people, art of a military leader, uncommon qualities of the astute politician in the XIX century got recognition in the people.
Use of materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires written or oral permission from the Board of Editors or the author. Hyperlink to National Digital History portal is necessary. All rights reserved by the Law RK “On author’s rights and related rights”. To request authorization email to firstname.lastname@example.org or call to (7172) 79 82 06 (ext.111)