Social and demographic processes in Kazakhstan (1897-1992).
The population of the sovereign state of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the course of formation of the ethnic territory and demographic structure passed a difficult historical way.
Population in the Kazakh khanate during folding in the middle of the XV century made about 200 thousand people. For the next 70 years there was forced growth of the population at the expense of collecting of the Kazakh nationality and its territory. At the beginning of the XVI century the number of citizens of khan Kasym made 1 million people.
The beginning of formation of multinational structure of the population of Kazakhstan belongs to the XVI century.когда Russians, Ukrainians, Tatars and the representatives of other nationalities running from prosecutions of the Russian authorities, united in so-called Cossack outlaws. In the 1890th country colonization from Russia and Ukraine amplifies. On the basis of the fortresses constructed during military and migratory expansion of Russia, there were the first colonial cities occupied mainly by Russians, Ukrainians and Tatars. B1881 — 1883 from Xinjiang (China) moved about 50 thousand Uyghur and дунган which bulk took place in the territory of Kazakhstan.
According to population census of the Russian Empire 1897 three largest ethnic groups were allocated for territories of Kazakhstan: the Kazakhs making 81,7% of the population, Russians — 10,9 and Ukrainians — 1,9%. But in 1914 the specific weight of Kazakhs decreased to 65,1, and east Slavs (Russians, Ukrainians, Belarusians) increased to 29,6%. Therefore, for 1897 — 1914 the specific weight of Kazakhs decreased on 16,6 points, and the Slavic population rose by 16,8 points.
The positive balance of migration of Russian and the Ukrainian population was the main reason of decrease in specific weight of indigenous people and its ratio with other ethnic groups. Country colonization of Kazakhstan especially amplified last decade XIX century — the beginning of the XX century in connection with a stolypinsky agrarian reform. In only 46 years (1871 — 1917) in the region settled over 1,6 million people (without come back back), the vast majority which arrived in 1907 — 1916. As a result of it at the end of XIX — the beginning of the XX century process of formation of multinational structure of the population of Kazakhstan was accelerated. By the beginning of the XX century representatives lived about 60 nationalities among which, except the Turkic population (Uzbeks, Uyghurs, Kyrgyz, Karakalpaks, Tatars, Bashkirs etc.) were Germans, Poles, мордва, дунгане, Tajiks, Jews, etc. in the region.
In the years of World War I the number of Kazakhs that is explained by decrease in level of a natural increase and mortality growth was considerably reduced. It were consequences of defeat of revolt in 1916 when hundreds thousands Kazakhs were lost from hands of chasteners and were compelled to run out of borders of the empire. Only from Semirechensky area in 1916 150 thousand Kazakhs emigrated. Transformations of Kazakhs into minority in the primordial territory were so laid the foundation.
These and other tendencies of ethno-demographic development, in particular strengthening process многонациональное™ Kazakhstan received a sharp push during the postoctober period, in days of the Soviet power that was connected with implementation of socialist industrialization, collectivization, other social and economic transformations, Great Patriotic War consequences. In all areas which have been negatively reflected in demographic development of the Kazakh people, the negative role was played by migratory policy.
In October, 1920 the Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic as a part of the Russian Federation Orenburg became which capital was proclaimed. It allowed to unite the most part of the ethnic territory of Kazakhs as a part of national state education.
In 1924 there was a national and territorial delimitation of the republics of Central Asia as a result of which the Kazakh regions of Turkestani ASSR (Syr-Darya and Dzhetysuysky areas) were a part of Kazakhstan. The Orenburg province was transferred to the Russian Federation. There were certain changes in a demographic situation of the republic.
On census of 1926 in modern borders of Kazakhstan lived more than 6198,4 thousand people, from them Kazakhs of 58,5%, Russian — 20,6, Ukrainians — 13,9, Uzbeks — 2,1, Tatars — 1,3, Uyghurs — 1,0, Germans — 0,8 etc. If to compare with given to the All-Russian census of 1897, for these 29 — 30 years the population of the republic grew approximately by 1,5 times, including Russians — by 2,8 times, representatives of other nationalities — by 4,3 times, Kazakhs — by only 234,8 thousand people, i.e. for 7%. Specific weight of Kazakhs decreased on 23,2 points, Russians increased on 9,6 points, others — by 13,7 percentage points.
Numerical growth of the majority of the main nationalities of the Kazakh ASSR went on four main channels: positive balance of migration as a result of excess of inflow of the population over outflow from the middle of the 20th; natural increase, excess of birth rate over mortality; expansion of the actual administrative borders of the republic after formation of the autonomous republic and national and territorial delimitation of Central Asia in 1924; assimilatory and consolidation processes.
It is known that the demographic situation at the beginning of the 20th was adverse, on the one hand, during a crop failure and jute of 1921 the part of peasants began to move spontaneously in RSFSR and to Ukraine. The Central Election Commission of the Kazakh ASSR addressed to the country population of the republic with the special address with the purpose to constrain outflow from the republic. With another — at the beginning of the 20th from the various regions of Russia (for example, from the Saratov, Astrakhan province) to Kazakhstan moved or came back not only country (Russian, Ukrainian, Mordovian, etc.), but also the Kazakh population.
In 1925 — 1926, most likely, the balance of inflow and outflow of the migrants, gradually developing in positive balance of migration was defined.
Total number of migrants at 6268 thousand resident population, noted at the time of census of 1926, reached 1601 thousand people. Of them a half was made by peasants immigrants and the indigenous people which has replaced a residence till 1916 6. Thus, in December, 1926 over 800 thousand illocal inhabitants who have moved to the period from 1916 to 1926 were noted.
Moved to the republic was more, than left out of its limits, on 638,8 thousand. The most part of migrants arrived from Ukraine, from the Volga region, from the North, the West, the RSFSR Center, smaller of Siberia, the Urals, Belarus, Central Asia, the Far East. Migrants from the European part preferred areas of bogarny agriculture. So, in the Kustanay district 15% of all arrived, in Akmolinsky and Aktyubinsk — 40, in Semipalatinsk — 24% of migrants took place. This results from the fact that areas of bogarny agriculture in forest-steppe and steppe zones were close according to climatic and soil characteristics to regions of an exit of migrants. Besides arrived from the European part of Russia in these zones got to the close ethnic environment.
Migratory contacts developed and with the republics of Central Asia. Except the listed above factors migratory processes of this area were influenced by national and territorial delimitation. Participants of national liberation movement of 1916 came back to borders of the republic from East Turkestan. Intra republican migration характеризова! the expert movement in connection with subsidence of indigenous people from desert and semidesertic lands to areas of irrigation and bogarny agriculture. Inflow of indigenous people to the cities was at the same time observed.
In 1926 — 1928 in Kazakhstan growth of rates of an increase in population proceeded. There was noticeable a divergence of tendencies of demographic development in the USSR and in Kazakhstan: in industrially developed and urbanized regions of the country birth rate decreased, in the southeast raised. Decrease in birth rate in the republic wasn't and at Russian, and the Ukrainian population.
In 1930 — 1933 in Kazakhstan the hunger caused by policy of power collectivization in combination with subsidence of nomads and semi-nomads, and also an artificial urbanization was happened. Hundreds thousands Russians, Ukrainians, Uyghurs etc. nationalities were lost, but the main part of victims fell on Kazakhs. By available calculations for 1925 — 1934 1610 Kazakhs were lost, about 135 thousand people were lost in 1935 — 1938 as a result of social and political repressions. In total among Kazakhs the decrease made 1745 thousand people.
The spontaneous population shift proceeding to the middle of the 20th, gradually gained the organized character. Huge unemployment in the central industrial regions of the country, reaching 1,3 million people, forced tens of thousands of people in поискахработы and bread to go to Kazakhstan on construction of Turksib, the Karaganda coal basin, Balkhash, etc. Only on the organized set of labor to Kazakhstan from other regions of the country in 1931 — 1940 there arrived 509 thousand people. The vast majority of workers and the found a job unemployed after completion of construction of the industrial enterprises and the railroads, the cities and working settlements, remained, passing to permanent job.
In parallel there was an agrarian resettlement. In the late twenties — the beginning of the 30th the dispossessed peasants specialimmigrants began to arrive to Kazakhstan from Russia, from Ukraine, etc. republics, and also the invalided-out Red Army men and peasants immigrants from the European part of the country and Siberia, the settlements which have organized on places of a commune and agricultural artels. During 1928 — 1930 to Kazakhstan for work in created state farms from different areas of the country of profit of 65 thousand families. In 1940 the organized resettlement of peasants volunteers from the land-poor regions of Ukraine and RSFSR, especially from Mordovia, Chuvashia, Tataria, etc. republics began. To Kazakhstan arrived from above 24,4тыс. families which lodged in northern areas of the republic for development of a grain farm on virgin lands.
In the late thirties deportation of a number of the ethnic groups which part was moved to Kazakhstan began. In October-November, 1937 from the Far East to Kazakhstan 110 thousand Koreans, from Azerbaijan and Armenia — over 2,4 thousand families of Iranians, Azerbaijanians, Kurds and Armenians in the Southern Kazakhstan, Dzhambul and Almaty areas were moved. On the eve of war Poles from the Western Ukraine and the Western Belarus, and also citizens of the Baltic republics were deported.
On census of 1939 in the republic lived 6094 thousand people, i.e. in comparison with 1926 the population of the republic was reduced by 105 thousand people, or for 1,7%. The greatest loss fell on the Kazakhs which number made now only 2 314 thousand people, in comparison with 1926 decreased by 1 314 thousand, or for 63,8%. Purely Ukrainians became 203 thousand less, Uzbeks — on 26 thousand, Uyghurs — on 28 thousand. But during 1926 — 1939 there was an increase in number of other ethnoses, in particular Russians — on 1174 thousand people, i.e. for 92%, Tatars — on 27 thousand — 34%, Belarusians — on 6 thousand — 22%.
Thus, by 1939 in Kazakhstan there was absolutely new ratio of ethnoses. Migratory expansion went more intensively. Specific weight of Kazakhs in comparison with 1926 fell to 20,5 points and equaled 38%, the share of Ukrainians was reduced with 13,9 to 10,8%, Uzbeks — with 2,1 to 1,7%, Uyghurs — with 1,0 to 0,6%. Russians represented the greatest ethnic group of Kazakhstan, their specific weight grew almost by 20 points and reached 40,2%. Germans made 1,5%, Koreans — 1,6, Tatars — 1,6, Belarusians — 0,5% etc.
Further strengthening of migratory expansion of Kazakhstan to the detriment of interests of aboriginals of the republic and with increase in specific weight of migrants proceeded both in the period of the Great Patriotic War and after it.
In the years of war the migratory stream to Kazakhstan sharply amplified. Except 536 thousand people evacuated from the western regions of the country of the population to Kazakhstan the whole people which autonomous educations were liquidated previously were deported. On the eve of mass deportation, on census of 1939, in Kazakhstan lived 54696 Poles, 3569 — Latvians, 808 — Lithuanians etc. The same destiny comprehended the German population of the country. In August, 1941 to Kazakhstan moved 349713 people, and the total number of Germans made 441713. Moving of the rest of Germans to Kazakhstan went in 1944 — 1945 Besides, on territories of Kazakhstan, etc. regions of the country the German and Japanese prisoners of war, with a total number of 2,5 million people worked. In the 50th гт. return of prisoners of war home came to the end.
In February, 1944 to Central Asia and Kazakhstan Chechens and Ingushs, in March — Balkars, in November — Meskhetian Turks, and also the Crimean Tatars, Karachays, etc. the people were violently moved.
After restoration in 1957 of an autonomy of the Chechen and Ingush people their return to the North Caucasus began. Intensively there was a return of Karachays, Balkars, Kalmyks. The part of Greeks, Turks-meskhetintsev, the Crimean Tatars, Poles, Koreans, Germans of the Volga region came back to places of a former residence. However their bulk remained in Central Asia and Kazakhstan. Intensively Latvians, Estonians, Lithuanians came back to the republics of the Soviet Baltic.
After war, to the middle of the 50th гт. the organized resettlement was carried out to Kazakhstan poorly. The largest migratory stream to the republic occurred in connection with development virgin and laylands which on time coincided with major industrial projects. On development virgin and laylands to Kazakhstan in 1954 — 1962 there arrived about 2 million people, generally from the European part of the country. On the interrepublican organized set of labor for the industry, construction and transport in 1954 — 1965 there arrived nearly 0,5 million people that made nearly 80% of all orgnabor of the republic. The majority of workers was gathered in Ukraine, in Belarus, Moldova and Lithuania. It even more strengthened a gap between the number of indigenous people, on the one hand, and alien, with another. In 1959 the specific weight of Russians reached 42,7%, and Kazakhs fell to 8 points in comparison with 1939 and made only 30%. Specific weight of other ethnic groups sharply didn't change. Migratory stream to Kazakhstan though at a little weakened speed, proceeded and later, but by the beginning of the 70th the negative balance was created.
The republic population in 1959 made 9294741 persons, i.e. by 1,5 times exceeded pre-war number.
In 20 years (1939 — 1959) the number of Kazakhs grew by only 474 thousand people (20%), Russian — 1523 thousand (62%), Ukrainians — N" 105тй& (16%), Tatars — by 85 thousand (79%), Uzbeks — 33 thousand (32%), Belarusians — 76 thousand (3,4 times), Uyghurs — 24,4тыс. (69%), others — 311 thousand (2,6 times). It is known that in 1939 the number of Germans made 92379 people, and In 1959 659658, Azerbaijanians — 12 thousand and 38 thousand people. Specific weight of Koreans заэто time decreased на0,8% at absolute reduction more than by 22 thousand people.
By 1970 the population of Kazakhstan made already more than 13 million people, having increased almost by 40%, Kazakhs made 4234 thousand (32,6%) of them, Russian — 5522 thousand (42,5), Ukrainians — 933 thousand (7,2), Germans — 858 thousand (6,6), Tatars — 288 thousand (2,2), Uzbeks — 216 thousand (1,7), Belarusians — 198 thousand (1,5), Uyghurs — 121 thousand (0,9), Koreans — 81 thousand (0,6), Azerbaijanians — 58 thousand (0,4), others national. — 498 thousand.
Apparently, the most numerous ethnos of Kazakhstan on continuation between censuses 1939,1959, 1970 remained Russians. Russians, Ukrainians, Belarusians (together taken) for 1939 — 1970 made absolute majority.
Nevertheless in 1959 — 1970 there was a change in demographic development of the Kazakh people. It was promoted by a number of factors: rather high natural increase, decrease in efficiency of migratory expansion, negative migratory balance. As a result the tendency of steady growth not only total number of Kazakhs, but also their specific weight as a part of the republic population was outlined. The last, as we know, continuously fell since pre-revolutionary times, and in 1897 — 1959гг. — with 81,8 to 30%. The absolute number of Kazakhs in the republic grew in 1959 — 1970 by 1446, 9 thousand people, i.e. for 51,9%. Thereby in the 60th of the XX century were laid the foundation for rather fast natural increase of Kazakhs and their transformation in the long term in the most numerous people in the ethnic territory.
It was considerably reduced 1970 a gap in level of an urbanizirovannost of the main ethnoses. Level of an urbanizirovannost of Kazakhs and Russians in 1970 differed more, than twice whereas in 1926 this difference was by 10 times. Sharp reduction of this difference was promoted by republic industrialization, agriculture collectivization, a cultural revolution in the USSR. Russians, Tatars, Koreans remained mainly city ethnoses, Kazakhs, Germans, Uzbeks, Azerbaijanians — rural.
If as a whole, in the republic the specific weight of city dwellers rose from 1959 to 1970 by 6,5 points, Russians (10,1), Ukrainians (13,4), Koreans (17,9), Azerbaijanians (13,1 points) were most quickly urbanized. Former rates of an urbanization were kept only by Belarusians (6,0%), other ethnoses lagged behind in formation of urban population.
In 1989 of an urbanizirovannost of Kazakhs made already 38,4%, Germans — 49,1, Uzbeks — 37,3, Uyghurs — 34,2%. The most urbanized there were Russians (77,8), Ukrainians (65,3), Tatars (77,2), Belarusians (61,6), Koreans (84,2%).
In 1979 — 1989 Kazakhs — 53,3%, Uyghurs — 52,8%, Uzbeks — 30% noted before as agrarian ethnoses had the fastest rates of an urbanization. Thus, both groups of ethnoses of Kazakhstan tend to fast alignment in social and economic development though between them the enormous difference of B1970 remains — 1989 continues not only to remain, but also to amplify ethnic compactness of the Kazakh country people. It promoted high level of natural reproduction of the population in rural areas, unattractiveness for migrants of the European part of the USSR, Siberia and the Far East, climatic conditions of semidesertic and desert zones of the South, the southwest and the southeast of Kazakhstan. However to the cities of these areas efforts of the central departments of the USSR continued to send migrants for extensive industrial development, big scales of capital construction.
As a whole in 1951 — 1970 fading of migratory process to Kazakhstan from other republics of the USSR was observed. In 1951 — 1970 from size over 100 thousand it changed to a negative migratory gain. At the same time there was a return of Kazakhs from other republics, and also from China in 1955 — 1959 and 1962.
Growth of a negative interrepublican migratory gain was observed in 1970 — 1990. In 1970 migratory outflow made 35 thousand, in 1988 — already 95 thousand people. Growth of interrepublican losses amplifies in 1985 — 1988 outflow of Russians to Russia as a result of adverse for them political processes in Kazakhstan. The international emigration in Kazakhstan in 1983 — 1987 was small. Since 1988 of a limit on emigration from the USSR began to be lifted. In 1988 from Kazakhstan 23,5 thousand emigrated, process continued to grow and in 1990 reached 92,3 thousand people. The main part of emigrants is made by Germans, Jews, Greeks.
In 1989 — 1990 reduction of an interrepublican negative migratory gain from 46,8 thousand in 1989 to 38,6 thousand in 1990 was observed.
Among leaving on interrepublican migration in 1988 — 1990 Russians made 53 — 55% of Kazakhstan, Ukrainians — 9 — 12, Germans — 6 — 8, Kazakhs — 6 — 9%, and among driving in 1990 to the republic: Russians made 48%, Ukrainians — 8, Germans — 5, Kazakhs — 20. Thus, in 1990 the number of Russians on interrepublican migration was reduced on 17,7, Ukrainians — 4,1, Kazakhs increased on 16,6 thousand people. Process of collecting of the Kazakh ethnos amplified. C1989 of proceeded again process of return of Kazakhs to Kazakhstan from Uzbekistan (in particular from Kara-Kalpak), Russia, Turkmenistan.
Since 1991 the new phenomenon in population shift began. It is characterized by growth of outflow of the non Kazakh population from Kazakhstan, an accruing flow of migrants of Kazakhs from Uzbekistan (including Kara-Kalpak), Turkmenistan and Russia. In 1991 of balance of migration of Kazakhstan with CIS countries made 10 thousand people, the North and the East of Kazakhstan brings together Russians from all CIS. In 1991 inflow of Kazakhs from Mongolia — 12,5 thousand people who intend to lodge constantly was observed. In total from Mongolia for 1991 — 1992 arrived 41 thousand Kazakhs. From Kazakhstan working experts leave countries of Eastern Europe, but come on earnings (selkhozrabo-you and commerce) Chinese from the People's Republic of China.
The result of ethnomigratory exchanges of Kazakhstan in 1991 made by our calculations (with all countries of the near and far abroad) on Kazakhs plus of 41,0 thousand people, on Russians — a minus — 24,0 people. Inflow of Russians to Kazakhstan is obvious only in northern areas, from the southern and western areas, and also from Semipalatinsk, Turgaysky, Zhezkazgansky areas outflow of the Russian-speaking population is observed.
The general tendency of a course of demographic processes during 1926 — 1979 shows alignment of demographic characteristics and transformation of once multidirectional tendencies into the unambiguous rather. The Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian population, since the middle of the 20th, extended practice of decrease in birth rate not only in the city, but also in the village. This process amplified at them in days of the first and second five-years periods, especially among the population which have arrived from another republics. In the same years population shift sharply increased: from the village to the city, from the city to the city, from the central regions to Siberia, Central Asia, the Far East.
Population shift growth, involvement of the increasing part of the female population in a social production, a population urbanization, acceleration social economic lives — all this promoted decrease in birth rate. Process proceeded in spite of the fact that during the period from 1939 to 1955 abortion was forbidden. This measure of expected effect didn't bring though temporarily I lifted birth rate. Birth rate falling in the next years at the Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian population making in 1959 in Kazakhstan relative and absolute majority, even was accelerated. Social and economic, stadial, demographic regularities of development of ethnos were the factor which has defined falling of birth rate.
Dynamics of ethnodemographic structure in 1979 — 1989 shows that in 1979 — 1989 the specific weight of Kazakhs in the general increase in population made 70, Russians — 13, Germans — 3% etc. And the gain of Kazakhs in Kazakhstan made 23,5%, Russian — 3,9%, немцев6,4%, Tatars — 4,6, Uzbeks — 26,1, Belarusians — 0,6, Uyghurs — 25,3 and Koreans of 12,3%. Orientation to number of children in a family at Kazakhs steadily decreases: in 1972 — 5,01, in 1978 - 4,85, in 1985 — 4,27.
Total birth rate at Kazakh women in 1979 made — 5,787, in 1989 already 3,584 that makes 61,9% from level of 1979. Kazakhs in Kazakhstan in 1962 had a natural increase one thousand people (37% from all natural increase of the population), in 1964 — 111 thousand (43%), in 1970 of-107,7 thousand (48,1%), 1972 - 114 thousand (49,0%), 1979 - 125 thousand (52,1%), 1989 - 162 thousand people (63,5%).
The indicator of child mortality is very high among Kazakhs, average life expectancy is lower, than at Russians. At the same time Russians, Ukrainians and Germans of Kazakhstan have rather old age structure, below than at Kazakhs birth rate indicators, are higher the general mortality rate, the natural increase is minimum. This process led to ethnodemographic domination in eleven of nineteen areas. Since 1980 movement of Kazakhs from the South to the north Kazakhstan, and also from the West to the north the republics is observed. At the same time continuation of return of part of Kazakhs to Kazakhstan from Russia is obvious, to Central Asia, Mongolia, etc. countries.
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