Kazakhstan in foreign policy of the USSR. Movement "Nevada — Semipalatinsk".
The foreign policy of the USSR in the 70th — the beginning of the 80th years was filled with contradictions. At party congresses the assessment of policy had positive character, creating visibility full success" the countries on the international scene. In definition of priorities внеш to it politicians the country leaders proceeded as well as in years Stalinism from antagonistic opposition of two world systems of the class principles, believing that in the world there is a transition from capitalism by a socialism that the ratio of forces steadily changes in favor of world system социализма.и it is necessary to support all those forces which are guided by this system. This support carried both moral, and material character. Such policy of ruling circles caused damage to the country and broke the basic international laws about inadmissibility of intervention in internal affairs of the states. It is necessary to tell, чтото most became also the government of the USA. The USA and her allies were considered as the main aggressive force getting in the way of revolutionary changes, occurring in the world.
At the beginning of the 70th the Soviet management relied on a detente of international tension. The relations with the USA, proceeding from common interests of these two states were normalized.
The Meeting on safety issues and cooperation in Europe, taken place in 1975 in Helsinki (Finland) became an event of great importance. The Final act adopted on it was a peculiar arch of the new principles of the interstate relations which are meeting the requirements of policy of peaceful co-existence. In the second half of the 70th years process of a discharge was slowed down, and at the beginning of the 80th USSR, the USA and other countries were involved in a new round of "cold war" and in unprecedented race arms.
In December, 1979 of the USSR I entered the armies into Afghanistan. The decision on it was made by a narrow circle of the Soviet management led by Brezhnev without discussion in the government, the Supreme Council. Heads of the Central Asian republics adjoining on Afghanistan weren't informed. The Afghan adventure undermined trust of the international public to a foreign policy of the USSR, provoked a new round of intensity. The Soviet people which have been brought up in implicit submission of party and the state, once again believed an official explanation of need of input of armies in Afghanistan though many understood that is pernicious adventure. But only individuals openly and resolutely condemned her. Among them there was an academician A. of Sakharov.
Kazakhstan wholly felt on itself inconsistent character of foreign policy of the USSR. At the end of 60 — the 70th extended the international, cultural, economic and scientific relations of the republic. B1977 of number of the countries with which such relations were maintained, reached 96. The share of Kazakhstan in foreign trade of the USSR grew. Production of the Kazakhstan enterprises was delivered almost to 80 countries of the world.
However export of goods was presented generally by energy carriers and raw materials and only in small volume mechanical engineering production — excavators, bulldozers, drawing camps, the medical equipment, agricultural cars etc. The republic received technological lines, machines, the road-building equipment, diesel power plants, electric locomotives, furniture, clothes, footwear, medicines, electrogoods, food etc. Economic relations of Kazakhstan with foreign countries were not straight lines, and through allied departments which planned export and import and the considerable share of means from export "settled" in these departments. The republic wasn't allowed even to spend for the nuzhdyvalyutny means which were due to it for exported production in quite large number partially.
Kazakhstan rendered scientific and technical assistance and medical care to a number of the states of Asia and Africa. The Kazakhstan experts worked at a construction of industrial facilities in India, Iraq, MNR, NDRI, Algeria, Turkey, Nigeria, in Cuba, participated in construction of irrigational constructions in Vietnam, Bulgaria, Cuba. Kazakh the Soviet Socialist Republic was the participant of the international exhibitions and fairs. The international conferences and symposiums on the SEV and UN line, in particular the international conference of World Health Organization, the V Conference of writers of the countries of Asia and Africa, the III musical tribune of the countries of Asia, the international seminars on national education, a library science, traffic safety problems, etc. became the noticeable phenomenon in cultural and scientific life of Kazakhstan held in the 70th years in Alma-Ata.
Scientific contacts of the Kazakhstan scientists with foreign colleagues were wide. The academy of Sciences of the republic participated in research of 31 problems and a subject with scientific institutions of the countries of SEVA. Cultural contacts went deep. Recognition was charged abroad by creative collectives of the Kazakh state orchestra of national tools of Kurmangaza, the Kazakh state ensemble of classical dance, Otrar Sazy ensemble, national actors of the USSR E.Serkebayev, B. Tulegenova, A.Dnishev, and also R. Rymbayeva, Z.Aubakirova, A.Musakhodzhayev, G. Kadyrbeko-va, etc. The works, mastery were shown in the countries of Europe, Asia, Africa and America by the Kazakh writers, artists, musicians, masters of the opera and the ballet.
Expansion of international relations had front and the back. The last followed from dictatorship of the center and excessive ideologizing of policy. All communications, structure of the persons which are going abroad, it was rigidly supervised by the party and ministerial device and KGB. Oppression of the ideological administration didn't allow any deviations from the programs planned in advance and performances which were urged to propagandize only "successes and blossoming" cultures and economy of Kazakhstan. The persons which are let out abroad, were carefully sifted, via the "reliability" filter. Appointees of party, Soviet or trade-union bodies and the ministries which had close connections with KGB were heads of various delegations and groups, including tourist, as a rule. Free trip abroad was forbidden. Contacts of social scientists with the foreign scientists who are engaged поблемами to a Sovietology were limited. Discussion of any acute problems connected with a tragic story of the Kazakh people after October wasn't recommended.
For foreign, however as well as for Soviet, the public unknown still had Shakarim and M. Zhumabayev's poetry, prose, journalism and Z.Aymautov, M. Dulatova's scientific works, the Village As fendiyarova, A.Baytursynova, A.Bukeykhanova, etc. At the direction abroad experts in offices of the ministries corruption and bribery were shown. Scientific articles and the messages directed abroad, were exposed previously to rigid censorship. Mass media strenuously created "an image of the enemy", disturbing to normal perception of the real world.
Aggravation of "cold war", race of arms by heavy burden laid down on economy of the republics, including Kazakhstan. The republic turned into the huge nuclear range of defense industry of the country. Besides, in its territory by 1985 settled down 43 large enterprises of military industrial complex covering priority spheres of production. They were erected by the allied ministries without any consent of the republic, is frequent contrary to its interests. Developing production, they as a rule delivered here experts and skilled workers from other republics, without caring at all of preparation of personnel from indigenous people, scornfully treating its needs. Many enterprises of military industrial complex were ecologically harmful, causing damage to health of the population and the nature.
Kazakhstan continued to rank high in ensuring strategic parity of the USSR and the USA, in particular in modernization of nuclear capacity of the country. Worked Semipalatinsk nuclear, Ural and other ranges for tests nuclear and other types of weapon. In the 80th years in total under ranges, various military facilities about 18 million hectares of the Kazakhstan earth were occupied. Only the Semipalatinsk nuclear range occupied 8372 sq.km. Thus the earth got under these objects according to the decision of the central bodies without any coordination and the prior notice of republican bodies. The highest officials of the republic appeared silent and uncomplaining slaves to system in this situation. Any of them didn't raise the voice against nuclear tests which to bear disasters and need to the people.
In total on Semipalatinsk and other ranges more than 500 explosions of nuclear devices were made. Decades suppressed impact of these explosions on health of the population and environment. According to scientists for years of tests on the range not less than 500 thousand inhabitants of the Semipalatinsk region underwent chronic radiation by ionizing radiation.
Underground tests of the nuclear weapon perniciously influenced a condition of obvodnitelny constructions in area, broke current of underground waters, lowered an output of water wells. The content of iodine, caesium, strontium in sterns and livestock products in areas near the range is 30 — 100 times higher, than in the areas remote from the range. Up to 1990 of the Ministry of Defence and health care hid original data on impact of tests of atomic weapons on human health. There was also no compensation to the people who have undergone radiation. At many of them, especially those who lived in the territory adjacent to the range during atmospheric tests in 1949 — 1963, various diseases, especially oncological character were shown. Mortality of the population from these diseases only for 1975 — 1985 increased in Semipalatinsk area by 7 times, decrease in reproductive capacity, growth of mental diseases and suicides was observed.
Besides the Semipalatinsk range in different years in the territory of the republic 38 nuclear explosions of a various moshchnost in 27 places were made. Most actively for this purpose ипользовалась Atyrausky area where in total there were 17 tests of weapons of mass destruction. Eight ядерныхзарядов it is blown up on ranges in Cisural area, the others — in the Aktyubinsk, Akmolinsky, Southern Kazakhstan areas. The Renaissance island in the Aral Sea was the range for tests of the bacteriological weapon.
In essence Kazakhstan in 40 years of tests of atomic weapons became a place of nuclear catastrophe. Its scales, consequences still remain unknown. The crime against the people is made, everything became secretly, is reserved. For elimination of radioactive infection huge amounts of money and many decades are necessary.
The changes which have begun with spring of 1985 in internal political life of the country, affected and foreign policy activity of the Soviet state. To the place of old dogmas of absolutization of class values and interests, the confrontational approach dividing the world into two antagonistic systems, the understanding of came that the priority in foreign policy has to be given to universal values and nature of development of the world community has to be defined not by mutual confrontation and fight, and a measure of realization of universal interest. Essence of the last — in preservation of a terrestrial civilization, in the joint permission of environmental, food, international and other problems of the present, in restraint of race of arms.
The Soviet management took concrete steps for an exit from the confrontation deadlock between the East and the West. In 1985 of the USSR unilaterally I imposed the moratorium on the nuclear tests. Year ranges were silent, but in 1987 of test renewed. At the end of 1988 the Soviet Union made the decision on considerable unilateral reduction of the Armed forces. These actions lifted prestige of the Soviet foreign policy and discredited idea of the USSR as about "empire of evil".
Settlement of the Afghan conflict became one of the most considerable achievements of reorganization. Actions of the Soviet armies in Afghanistan cost to the country annually 5 billion rubles. Thousand Soviet families lost close and native in this war. This war and Kazakhstan bypassed. 21979 people participated in it from the republic. From them about 780 was lost, 393 steels disabled people, 22 — were missing. In 1988 of the USSR I began a conclusion of the armies from Afghanistan, having finished it in February, 1989. This action lifted prestige of the USSR in the world community, showed its readiness affairs to support the peacekeeping initiatives. The Soviet foreign policy found dynamism of which it was deprived in days of stagnation. The Soviet-Chinese relations that had important value for Kazakhstan adjoining to the People's Republic of China improved.
Despite mitigation of an international situation of the USSR still I contained large army and huge military industrial complex. The priority of universal values proclaimed the country leaders within the country wasn't coordinated by skrupny costs of military expenses, with proceeding tests of the nuclear weapon and its building. Still explosions on Semipalatinsk the range rattled.
The changes happening in the country in internal political life, caused growth of a popular initiative and lifting of natsionalny consciousness in Kazakhstan. One of manifestations of it was formation of national anti-nuclear movement. The democratic public of Kazakhstan in the USSR made for the first time the requirement — to stop tests and to close the Semipalatinsk range.
In February, 1989 on meeting of the public of the republic it was begun the first Soviet movement "Nevada — Semipalatinsk". The known public figure, poet O. Suleymenov headed it. Movement got strong support of all population of Kazakhstan. Its offices were created in many cities and country regions. For a short time it became one of the most effective social movements. He was supported also by the international public supporting nuclear disarmament. On August 6, 1989 on Movement meeting near page. Guard of Semipalatinsk area the address to the people and presidents of the USSR and the USA about need of the joint moratorium was accepted. In it it was spoken: "Our steppe shudders from nuclear explosions, and we can't be silent more. These are 40 years of tests which contained in itself thousands and one thousand Hirosim. The fear before the future poisoned our consciousness. We are afraid to drink water, is food, to give birth to children. We organized the Movement "Nevada — Semipalatinsk" to fight for the termination of tests of the nuclear weapon in Kazakhstan, to defend our birth right to the world and safety in own house".
Desperate fight against military industrial complex for the termination of nuclear tests was developed. After long years of silence and humiliation of human dignity the people raised the head and told — "Isn't present! " — to nuclear explosions. About nuclear danger scientists in the press, parliamentarians at sessions started talking, physicians openly discussed influence of radiation on human health and methods of their treatment, and the main thing — the voice of victims of nuclear tests, those who lost health as a result of radiation for the first time was heard. Under a powerful pressure of the public supported by the Supreme Council of the republic, the allied government was compelled to go for reduction of explosions on Semipalatinsk the range. B1989 of from 18 planned explosions on the range was stopped 11. For the first time the moratorium on explosions not on the basis of top-level governmental agreements, and thanks to active actions of the public was established.
At the initiative of the Movement "Nevada — Semipalatinsk" in Alma-Ata in May, 1990 the international congress "Voters of the world against the nuclear weapon", for the purpose of association of efforts of all anti-nuclear movements of the world for the full termination of tests of the weapon in all nuclear powers was carried out.
Crucial importance for the termination of tests of atomic weapons in Kazakhstan had finding by the independence republic. In the Declaration on the state sovereignty of Kazakhstan it was declared the full termination of development, production and test nuclear and other types of weapon of mass destruction in the territory of the republic. August 28, 1991. The president of Kazakhstan N.A.Nazarbayev signed the Decree about closing of the Semipalatinsk range. Thus the people of Kazakhstan the resolute actions by the first stopped the nuclear range largest in the country and it made a serious contribution to process of general nuclear disarmament. After a stop of the Semipalatinsk range the moratorium on the Russian, American, French ranges was declared.
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