Kazakhstan during the civil war
On fundamental issues of social and political development after the February period, the leaders of the national- liberal movement sided with the Provisional Government.
Kazakhstan after the fall of the Tsarist autocracy
The establishment of Soviet power and its first steps in the economic and cultural development
Kazakhstan during the Civil War
The overthrow of the tsarist a result of the February bourgeois- democratic revolution in 1917 , has fundamentally changed the balance of political forces in Russia . The rebels workers, soldiers and peasants established their governments Tips . The bourgeoisie and the landlords bourgeoisified using the victory of the revolution took power into their own hands and formed a provisional government and its agencies on the ground, including in the national borderlands .
Kazakhstan to hold dominion and give a "democratic form " a separate state and government agencies , the Provisional Government modified the their name, is not significantly changing the socio -economic and national policies of the state and put in charge of provinces and districts commissioners from among former imperial officials belonging to Cadet Party and the Socialist Revolutionaries , and the individual members of the national- liberal Kazakh intellectuals (A. Bukeikhanov , M. Tynyshpaev , A. Beremzhanov , etc.).
The leader of the Kazakh national intelligence Bukeikhanov A. , who was at the time of the victory of the February Revolution in Minsk , addressed to "The Kazakhs - free citizens of the new Russia ." It provides, in part: " ... It is necessary to organize the Kazakhs to support the new system and the new government. We need to work in contact sovsemi nationalities who supported the new system . Our motto - unity and justice. Hastily discuss the land issue . Our motto - "democratic republic" and the land of the one who receives income from its cattle breeding and agriculture , " 1.25-28 March, as a delegate , he took part in the VII Congress of the Cadets . Speaking in the discussion of the agrarian question , A. Bukeikhanov demanded the return of the Kazakhs illegally taken from them lands.
The thesis of " the Kazakhs to organize ... " soon reflected in the creation of a network of regional and district committees of the Kazakh as the third force , along with the bodies of the Provisional Government and local councils in the political Spector posleFevralya Kazakhstan in 1917 , and later evolved into the idea of the organization of the Kazakh National autonomy within the Russian Democratic Republic. The thesis of " the immediate return of illegally confiscated from the Kazakhs ( tsarist ) they land 'has evolved into the idea of collecting all the indigenous Kazakh lands in the single Kazakh statehood.
On fundamental issues of social and political development after the February period, the leaders of the national- liberal movement sided with the Provisional Government. Because of this, they were faced with a negative attitude to the Soviets as organs, opposition to the Provisional Government .
This was the general picture of the socio - political environment in which turned the process of consolidation and grouping of different forces aspiring to power.
The revolution set in motion the entire population of Kazakhstan. Migrant edge in numerous telegrams and resolutions of meetings and gatherings , addressed to the Petrograd Soviet , expressed appreciation to the workers and soldiers of Petrograd, which overthrew the hated tsarist regime .
Petrograd , Moscow and other Councils , organized in the early days of the revolution , were strong enough to completely overthrow the Provisional Government and concentrate it in their hands , but their heads were inclined to compromise with the Provisional Government , and in the end the real power passed into the hands of latter.
Dual power reflected by the fact of occurrence of the internal contradictions of the February Revolution , the instability of the socio - political situation in the country and the inevitable transfer of all power or the Provisional Government , to protect the interests of the imperialist bourgeoisie and its allies, or to the Board, is a revolutionary- democratic government of workers and peasantry , ie the majority of the population suffering from social and national oppression.
In March 1917, in Kazakhstan were formed throughout the local authorities of the Provisional Government , provincial and district executive committees , reflecting the interests of entrepreneurs , merchants and officials.
So , March 4, 1917 bourgeois circles of Petropavlovsk , coupled with the right tip of the Socialist-Revolutionaries and Mensheviks formed a coalition committee of public safety , which includes the largest merchants of St. Peter and Paul Cheremiska County , Kazantsev, Nagatkin . March 3, 1917 in Kokchetav meeting of merchants and elected officials of the Coalition Provisional Committee and before the convening of the county Congress has entrusted him with duties of county government. March 5, 1917 in Semipalatinsk oblast executive committee was formed community organizations and the military. In the first days of March, the executive committee was formed in Ust -Kamenogorsk.
"Bulletin of the executive committee of the Semipalatinsk " March 9, 1917 reported the organization of district executive committees - local provisional government - Zaysan , Pavlodar and Kokpekty . The representatives of the bourgeoisie and the bureaucracy led governments in many other cities of Kazakhstan.
Faithful support of the Provisional Government in the regions and districts of Kazakhstan were so-called Cossack committees . Tatar , Uzbek , Uighur merchants who owned large stores and other commercial enterprises in many cities of Kazakhstan and united in the "Muslim ", " Tatar " and other committees and kurultais .
The local authorities of the Provisional Government in Kazakhstan , based on the kulaks , the upper part of the Cossacks and a baystva Kazakh village , supported by the political parties of the bourgeois and petty-bourgeois wing , continued to plunder the working people , and put on them the burden of the imperialist war.
The second rule in the country , including in Kazakhstan , were the Soviets of Workers ', Soldiers' and Peasants' Deputies , which is, by definition, Lenin , the revolutionary- democratic dictatorship of the workers and peasants, which was based not on the law enacted by the central state authority, and on the revolutionary seizure on the direct initiative of the masses snizu2 .
Soviets of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies in Kazakhstan appeared somewhat later than in the central areas - in March 1917 at the same time was a process of aggregation. Because of lower-than- organization of the workers and soldiers Soviets of Peasants ' Deputies appeared in May and June 1917
Dual power in Kazakhstan had specific features due to the socio- economic and political situation of the region, its multinational and largely petty bourgeois population , the location of the Siberian , Orenburg , Ural and Semirechensk Cossack troops.
Tips Kazakhstan since its inception have been internationalized , especially the Soviets of Workers ' and Peasants' Deputies. They were Russian , Kazakhs , Ukrainians , Tatars , Uighurs , Uzbeks , representatives of other nations. In the Soldiers' Councils were mostly Russian , Ukrainians, Tatars part . The leading role in most of the Soviets of Kazakhstan belonged to the petty-bourgeois parties, mainly the Socialist - Revolutionaries . This was due to the weakness and the paucity of the Bolsheviks, the lack of organization and political immaturity of the local workers, the low level of socio- economic development of Kazakhstan.
During the formation of the local organization of the Provisional Government and a wide network of councils in the province (March - early April 1917 ) between the bourgeoisie and the revolutionary forces of democracy existed a certain understanding, established tenuous agreement between the executive committees of the ( Provisional government agencies ) and local councils , which had a tendency to strengthen . Executive committees and Councils have been working together to destroy the imperial administration in the field, freed political prisoners and exiles tried to solve the urgent problems of the economy, have taken steps to return to Chinese refugees - members of the national liberation uprising in 1916 , etc. But the fragile agreement soon came to an end . The arrival of Lenin from exile , put forward by him in "April Theses" requirements and solutions , which took place shortly VII ( April) Conference of the Bolshevik charted a course into the open , uncompromising opposition party of the masses and the government, the executive committees and councils on matters of war and peace, the agrarian , national and state building .
Lenin believed that the dual power are merely a transitional moment in the development of the revolution, when she went on a conventional bourgeois-democratic revolution, but has not reached a "clean" the dictatorship of the proletariat and the peasantry " 3 . He explained the course of the Bolshevik Party in the development of the bourgeois -democratic revolution into the socialist slogan defining a new stage of the revolution : " All power to the Soviets! " - The implementation of which was to lead to the elimination of dual power and the establishment of absolute rule of the Soviets. This meant a violation of the fragile civil peace and the beginning of an open confrontation between the two powers , the Provisional Government and the Soviets.
The slogan of Lenin fell on fertile ground , as the difficulties caused by the war (hunger , high prices , the general devastation, strengthen social and national oppression ), all grew . This contributed to the rapid process of Bolshevisation Soviets and their transformation into the main instrument for the overthrow of the Provisional Government and the establishment of Soviet power.
This development has put in a difficult position of national- liberal movement . Its leaders in April and May 1917 had over Kazakhstan Kazakh regional and district conventions , where national elected provincial and district committees . Most supported the Provisional Government and the actions of local authorities , but at the same time sought to strengthen the influence of the Kazakh population of the region.
Members of the Kazakh congresses held in the spring of 1917 in Akmola, Uralsk , Orenburg, Semipalatinsk, Verne and other cities , led by the leaders of the national- liberal movement and discussing the agrarian and national questions, questions of nation-building , not yet been able to develop a program on these issues.
The representatives of the Kazakh people were appointed commissioners of the Provisional Government : Turgay in the area - A. Bukeikhanov , Seven Rivers - M. Tynyshpaev , Turkestan - M. Chokaev , but they could not solve the problems of the indigenous Kazakh population , since it is essentially the officials of the colonial administration .
Meanwhile, the war continues , anti-people policies of the Provisional Government a heavy burden fell on the shoulders of the workers. In the spring and summer of 1917 intensified the process of politicization of the entire population of Kazakhstan. Fresh impetus to the political life of the village and the villagers have returned to their homeland participants logistical work ( about 150 thousand), and front-line soldiers . Many of them came to the villages of politically literate, with a determination to fight for freedom. One of the participants in the rear works Zhusup Babaev, rejoining the Seven Rivers area of Kamenetz -Podolsk in the early summer of 1917 , he wrote : "We have brought in the villages hatred of the Provisional Government ... and the consciousness of the need to self- organization of the poor and laborers . We brought news of the ... Russian proletariat struggle for Soviet power "4. In early June 1917 through Pavlodar on the boat drove participants surround work that was supplied with a rifle , checkers and boepripasy5 .
June 26, 1917 the commander of the Turkestan Military District, ordered the garrison to all railway stations Kazalinsk committees , perovskite , Turkestan , Tashkent railway " to make a thorough osmotreshelonov native workers , taking away from them as firearms and cold steel ... Military supervisors and military convoy escorting passenger trains , pay special attention to the natives, the following works with front single order " 6.
In the spring and summer of 1917 among the Kazakh workers have the organization that brought together participants in the rear works, laborers unions and revolutionary- democratic youth organizations, which adjoined the Soviets of Workers ', Soldiers' and Peasants 'Deputies ' Association of the Union of Muslim workers of the Faithful " (Union laborers ) workers' Union of Dzharkent , Unions Muslim workers ( ITTIFAK ) created in the southern regions of Kazakhstan, were part of Turkestan .
After the February Revolution in some places there were youth organizations and clubs that brought together representatives of the students and teachers of aul ( mugalimov ) : The Board of democratic students - in Omsk, "Jas Kazakh" ( "Young Kazakh" ) - in Akmola, "Jas Zhurek" ( "Young heart" ) - on Spassky factory " Talap " (" desire ") - Petropavlovsk , " Zhanar " (" Light ") - in Semipalatinsk, " the Kazakh Union of Revolutionary youth" - in Merck Aulie -Ata district , etc.
Initially, the majority of youth organizations set itself the cultural and educational challenges. But in the process of polarization of the political movement they have come close to solving the problems of class , social and political significance. With the development of the revolution among youth organizations joined to the Soviets , for example, "Jas Kazakh" led by S.Seifullin and " Revolutionary Union of Kazakh people " , led T.Ryskulov , others went to the leaders of the national- liberal intelligentsia.
Demonstration of workers , soldiers , sailors, 4-5 July 1917 in Petrograd was suppressed by the Provisional Government by force of arms . There was a direct threat to the civil war, with the prospect of defeat Petrograd Bolsheviks. July 7 was issued for the arrest of Lenin , the Bolsheviks began a crackdown on the front and the rear.
July 11, 1917 the CEC announced the provision of the Interim Government of unlimited powers , securing legislative support this elimination of dual power.
Under these conditions, after the events of July , Lenin established himself at the thought of the impossibility of a peaceful transition of power to the proletariat. The question was posed sharply : either victory voennoydiktatury to the end, or the victory of the armed uprising. At the same time , Lenin had emphasized that the armed uprising is possible only when the new revolutionary upsurge of the people, in the presence of a national crisis .
Continuing , in fact, the policy of the tsarist autocracy , the Provisional Government in Kazakhstan could not solve the national question and did not seek to solve the agrarian question . The issue of self-determination or autonomy of the Kazakhs , like other oppressed peoples , it did not even try to put. This was the reason that the newspaper "Kazakh" A. Bukeikhanov publicly announced his withdrawal from the party of the Cadets. He emphasized three points: " The Cadet Party stands for the transfer of land to private ownership. The transfer of land to private hands in our conditions will lead to the fact that after a while , as happened in Bashkiria, plots of land will go to the next man, but the Kazakhs become beggars. The Cadet Party opposes national autonomy. We are holding up the banner of the Alash strive to form a national autonomy ... The Cadet Party opposes the separation of church and state, and I support the separation of church and state. Differences on these three items ... clearly revealed . So I decided to get out of the Cadets and to organize a party "Alash" 7.
In these circumstances, the Kazakh leaders of the liberal movement , given the rapidly changing situation and accelerated the process of polarization of political forces , decided to speed up obschekazahskogo Congress.
The first All-Kazakh Congress , which was attended by representatives from almost all regions of Kazakhstan took place in the city of Orenburg 21-26 July 1917 On the agenda were 14 questions : a system of government; autonomy Kazakh regions , the land issue , the organization of people's militia , the district council ; public education ; court ; spiritual and religious issues , women's issues , the convening of a Constituent Assembly and preparation for the elections to the Kazakh fields; All-Russian Muslim Congress , formation of the Kazakh political party; Semirechensk developments in the field ; participation of Kazakh -Russian federal council in Kiev and work of the commission on public education in St. Petersburg.
The main attention is paid to the problem of national delegates autonomy , land issues , the preparation of the Constituent Assembly and the formation of the Kazakh political party.
A month before the start of the Congress in the newspaper "Kazakh" published a series of articles in which there were different points of view on the question of autonomy. In the June 24 issue of the newspaper wrote : "If it is clear that autonomy is necessary, what form would be most convenient for the Kazakhs - state or federal autonomy autonomy ? If we come to a form of regional autonomy , then what will be its basis - the territory or particular cultures or particular nationality? Will the Kazakhs claim independence , or will achieve it in alliance with other nations? "8.
Baitursynov A. and M. Dulatov called for the creation of an independent Kazakh Autonomous State. Bukeikhanov preferred the Kazakh national- territorial autonomy " in a democratic, federal and parliamentary Russian republic." This view is supported by the majority . "Kazakh region - said in a resolution of the Congress - should receive ... territorial and national autonomy " 9.
The central point of the congress was the land question . The main provisions of the resolution of the Congress on the issue boiled down to the following: land acquisition of Kazakh society ceases ; all confiscated land and unallocated land resettlement offices of returning Kazakh communities in the traditional use ; immigration into the steppe terminated by the introduction of qualification , etc.
The congress discussed the preparations for the Constituent Assembly , the list of candidates was introduced 81 people - representatives from all regions of Kazakhstan and the Kazakh communities of Bukhara, Khiva and Fergana . Among them were the leaders of the newspaper "Kazakh" , the leaders of the Kazakh national liberal movement Bukeikhanov A. , A. Baitursynov, regional leaders : A. Ermekov , X. Gabbassov (Semipalatinsk ), J. Dosmukhamedov , X.
Dosmukhamedov (West Kazakhstan ), M. Tynyshpaev ( Seven Rivers ), M. Chokaev , S. J. Asfendi - Jarov ( Turkestan ) . Among the candidates were also Russian scientist G. Potanin and politician V. Chaikin .
On the decision of the Congress had a strong influence Kazakh intellectuals grouped around the newspaper " Kazakh" . With this narrowed the ability to influence the Muslim clergy in the Kazakh population : clerical courts were eliminated , replaced them had entered the legal framework , the women had to have equal rights with men , denied dowry . Education was to be binding and subject to civil authorities.
However, the decision of the Congress provided for the establishment of an independent muftiat in Orenburg to control Akmola, Semipalatinsk , Turgay , Ural regions and Kazakh regions Trans-Caspian region .
The first All-Kazakh Congress , in fact, constituted itself in the Kazakh national political party "Alash" . In his judgment stated : " Recognising the necessary education of Kazakh party , Congress instructs the representatives of the All-Russian Muslim Kazakhs Council to develop a program of the party , and the basis of a political program must be taken requirement ( established in Russia ), Democratic Republic of the federal parliament ," 10 . The leaders of the party " Alash " were Alikhan Bukeikhanov , Ahmet Baitursynov and other representatives of the Kazakh intelligentsia bourgeois- democratic direction , it was the Liberal Party baystva and petty-bourgeois democracy.
In the game of "Alash" included representatives of scientific and creative intelligentsia Tynyshpaev M. , M. Zhumabaev , Sh Kudaiberdiev , G. Karashev , S. Toraigyrov , X. Gabbassov , A. Ermekov , J. and X. Dosmukhamedov , etc. The vast majority of them in leta1917 was not embraced socialist program , Kazakh society as a whole was not gotovok etomu.Oni obedinilispod slogan : "Release of the Kazakh people from the colonial yoke ! ".
In autumn 1917, in Kazakhstan there was another national political organization - the party of "Ush - Juz ', which called itself " the Kirghiz (Kazakh) Socialist Party. " Its leader was Kolbay Togus . The party was of the pro-Bolshevik orientation and been the main opponent of the party " Alash" on many issues of social and political life of Kazakhstan.
In the late summer - early autumn of 1917 , the country began the widespread shift to the left of the masses , which was the result of the growing influence of the Bolsheviks in the soviets , in its ethnic composition representing predominantly Russian organization.
The defeat kornilovschintsy disorganized and weakened the forces of counter-revolution , raised the prestige of the Bolsheviks. Across the country, the Soviets began bolshevization . In this regard , the Bolshevik Party again put forward the slogan "All power to the Soviets! " Temporarily removed after the events of July 1917 Now this slogan is a call for an armed uprising and the overthrow of the Provisional Government , to the establishment of the dictatorship of the proletariat.
October 24 ( November 6) in 1917 in Petrograd began an armed rebellion. The next day the rebels workers, soldiers and sailors captured the most important objects of the capital. The morning of October 25 ( November 7), the Military Revolutionary Committee announced that the interim government has been overthrown .
The victory of the October armed uprising in Petrograd and the establishment of Soviet power in the center , as well as in neighboring Kazakhstan, large cities , Tashkent , Omsk, Orenburg, Astrakhan have been crucial to the transition of all power to the Soviets in Kazakhstan. However, the establishment of Soviet power in Kazakhstan dragged on for four months - from late 1917 to marta1918 This process was complicated by the difficulties generated by the socio -economic and cultural backwardness of the region, and the weakness of the small number of local working class and bolshevistskihorganizatsy , the complexity of international relations . A decisive role in the victory of Soviet power in the region played a local soldiers
garrisons , united in the Soviets of Soldiers' Deputies, and byvshiefrontoviki who have returned to Kazakhstan after the February Revolution and customized maximalist personally interested vovlasti that promised them the world , and the peasantry - the ground.
The situation was aggravated by the stubborn resistance of the so -called military governments of the Urals , Semirechensk , Siberia and the Orenburg Cossack troops , as well as congestion in the various ' cities of Kazakhstan (especially in Uralsk ) escaped from the central regions of the deposed Provisional Government.
In most areas of the Syr Darya , and Akmola regions Bukeyev Horde , where the forces led by the Bolsheviks, had a decisive advantage , and supporters of the Provisional Government were unable to put up armed resistance to the Soviet power won by peaceful means , by the conquest of the workers and poor peasants of a stable majority in the Soviets .
The situation was different in the Turgay , Ural , Semipalatinsk and partly in Semirechensk areas , where supporters of the Provisional Government had considerable strength . In many areas, particularly in the regional centers and county towns, Soviet power was established forces of the Red Guard detachments and probolshevists - FIR local garrisons of soldiers by the armed uprising and suppression of local resistance forces of the Provisional Government and its allies.
Since the end of October 1917 to March 1918 the Soviet power was established mainly in cities and other large settlements of Kazakhstan. In the bulk of villages and the villages of Kazakhstan the process of the establishment of Soviet power lasted until the outbreak of the Civil War. The most active part in the taking of AT Dzhangildin , S.Seifullin , K. Sutyushev , A. Asylbekov , B. Serikba s , A. Maykut , I. Dubinin , KA Shugaev , Y. Wu Shan SM Zwilling , A. Imanov Ryskulov T. , P. Vinogradov, T. Bokin , LP Emel , T. Utepov , A. et al Rozybakiev
Along with the establishment of the Soviet regime took steps to transform the economy and the culture was injected control in industrial plants ( plant on Spassky , Karaganda mines, Assumption mine at Emba oil fields , etc.) was nationalized a number of industrial enterprises and banks. Have been carried out the first steps to implement the Decree on Land , adopted at the II All-Russian Congress of Soviets. With the support of Lenin in Petrograd workers organized in East Kazakhstan three communes: "The first Russian society a farmer - communists" , "The Second Russian society is a farmer - Communists" and commune "Sunny ."
The decisions of the Soviet authorities , regional councils and district conventions the Decree on Land supplemented and developed to suit local conditions and initiatives of the peasants themselves .
With the victory of the October Revolution, the island became discuss national issues , especially issues of nation-building . The basic principles of the national policy of the Soviet government were declared in two important documents of the Soviet government - the Declaration of Rights of the Peoples of Russia ( November 2, 1917 ) and in the treatment of the Soviet Government "To All Working Moslems of Russia and the East" ( 20 November 1917 ) .
The adopted III All-Russian Congress of Soviets ( January 1918 ) , " Declaration of the Rights of the Working and Exploited People ," written by Lenin , has found its concentrated expression of the principled position of the Communist Party of the Soviet federation as a form of government in the Soviet republics. " The Russian Soviet Republic , stated in the Declaration - is established on the basis of a free union of free nations , as a federation of Soviet national republics" 10 .
Following the formation of the RSFSR , work on the creation of new autonomous republics in the East of the country. Bolshevik organization tips Kazakhstan and Turkestan began preparations for the convening and vseturkestanskogo All-Kazakh Congress of Soviets . The preparatory work for the convening of Kazakh Congress of Soviets proceeded simultaneously with the process of consolidation of Soviet power. In practice this meant that the struggle for strengthening it was at the same time a struggle for the formation of the Soviet state . With such a turn of events could not accept national party "Alash" and its leaders have not accepted the idea of the October Revolution and the formation of the Kazakh Soviet statehood basis.
Long before the October Revolution, the leaders of the Kazakh liberal- democratic movement widely propagate their views on the program of socio- economic and political development of Kazakhstan, and immediately after the revolution in Petrograd in the newspaper "Kazakh" November 21 published a draft program of the party " Alash ", compiled Alikhan Bukeikhanov , Ahmet Baitursynov Mirzhakyp Dulatov Eldesom Gumarov , Esengaliem Turmuhamedovym , Gabdulahmitom Zhundibaevym and Gazimbekom Birimzhanovym . The draft program consisted of ten items. The most significant of these are:
I. Polity . Russia should be a democratic Federal Republic of ... Each member state of the Federal Republic , being the independent acts in union with other states - members of the federation ...
II. Local freedom . The autonomy of the Kazakhs is composed of the areas inhabited by them , and is part of the Russian Federal Republic ... The party " Alash" is an advocate of justice for the poor was carrying - friends, bloodsuckers - the enemies ...
III.Osnovnoe right . In the Russian Republic, all are equal without distinction of religion , origin or gender.
In the Russian republic there is equality, security of person , freedom of speech , press, association ...
IV. Religion . Religion is separated from the state. All religiiravnopravny ... Kazakhs should be your muftiat ...
V. Power and judgment . The power of the court and shall be built in accordance sosobennostyami every nation. Bii and the judge should know yazykmestnogo people ... In areas where Kazakhs are the majority , the language of the court is Kazakh .
VI. Protecting people. To protect people's army should be ... Kazakhs serving in the form of mounted police .
VII.Nalog . Levy is the degree of wealth iimuschestvennogo condition; rich pay more , the poor - less.
VIII. Working . Workers should be protected by law ... The party " Alash" support in this matter Menshevik program ,
of the Social Democrats.
IX. The development of science and education. Education should bytdostoyaniem all . Education in all schools , primary schools besplatnoe.V teaching should be conducted in the native yazyke.Kazahi should be in the native language secondary schools and universities. Educational institutions should be autonomous , the government does not interfere with the learning ...
X. The land issue . In formulating the law of the land in the Constituent Assembly based land ownership should fall primarily indigenous population to ensure the Kazakh population of the earth at the resettlement sites of the peasants in the Kazakh lands must be stopped ; unpopulated areas previously selected in the resettlement fund land to be returned to the Kazakhs ' 12.
The program has provided the party " Alash" a great success in the elections to the Constituent Assembly and brought together representatives of various sectors of the Kazakh people at the Second All-Kazakh Congress , held on 5-12 December 1917 in Orenburg.
The conference, chaired by the Chairman of the Presidium Bahytkereem Kulmanov and his deputies Alikhan Bukeikhanov , Azimhanom Kenesarina , Hallel Dosmukhamedov and Omar Karashaevym , discussed various aspects of the Party's tactics in a rapidly changing political environment , paying attention to the issues of education Kazakh autonomy and the formation of its government.
The Congress decided that in the Kazakh autonomy must enter Bukei Horde , Ural , Turgay , Akmola , Semipalatinsk regions , areas of Trans-Caspian region and the Altai province , inhabited by Kazakhs . Congress delegates stated that after the overthrow of the Provisional Government of each day increases the growth of anarchy in the towns and villages in the desert , threatening the very existence of the Kazakhs. Therefore, " in order to save agreed to form a strong power in the face of a" provisional National Council ", giving it the name
Alash Orda (the government of Alash Autonomy ), and requested the Alash Orda immediately take over the whole executive power over the Kazakh population " 13.
The Congress has developed a plan for the establishment of the Kazakh militia. It provided a certain amount for each area , training and supply by counties . Providing police weapon was to be done by the central administration , with funding through taxation . It was decided to train officers to use the experience and the help of the Orenburg Cossacks, which suggested an alliance with the Whites of the Orenburg region , led by Ataman Dutov . Although this union was largely formal and ineffective, he complicated the situation Alash Orda .
Created Dzhangildin Ufa in the southern Urals by the Red squad with Kobyzeva and P. Pavlov January 18, 1918 captured Orenburg. Together with Dutov left Orenburg and alashordyntsy , and not having to create one Kazakh autonomy. Their forces disintegrated : the part called the eastern department, moved to the suburbs , the Alash Semipalatinsk ( Semey Jean ), another Zhympity settled in the Ural region ( Western Division ) , and the third acted Semirechensk area. In these circumstances, the party leadership "Alash" was forced to go to the contacts with the central Soviet government and its local authorities : A. Bukeikhanov sent to Moscow X. and J. Dosmukhamedov a meeting with Lenin and the People's Commissar for Nationalities Stalin and Halel Gabbassov on behalf of A. Bukeikhanov 20 March 1918 negotiated by telegram to Stalin . Their result was the center of the promise of financial help for the cultural needs of the future autonomy , a proposal calling Kazakh Congress and the establishment of civil peace in the region .
During the period of Soviet power relations party " Alash" with the new authorities have not switched from contacts to compromise. In a number of cities - Petropavlovsk Perovsk (now Kyzyl -Orda) , Aulie -Ata (now Zhambyl ), where local councils the power was in the hands of radical elements of the RSDLP ( b) , the activists of " Alash" were repressed only in Semipalatinsk, Vern ( Almaty) and in some other places have managed to establish a fragile , short-lived partnership . Thus, in the Semipalatinsk Regional Council were introduced one of the leaders of the local organization of Alash X. Gabbassov , chairman of the county zemstvo Kazbagorov , of the county council - the activists of " Alash" Sarsenov B. and J. Alimbekov . In this case, the parties do not trust each other , because each pursuing its own political goals : Tips wanted by the leaders and activists of the party " Alash" , attracted to the structures of power, increase the influence of the Kazakh population , and the leaders of "Alash" , formally supporting the Soviets , through their representative to the Board conducted a policy of " blurring " of the new government from the inside.
Otherwise, the party formed relationships "Ush - Horde " with the Soviet government , led by the Bolsheviks. Political views and action leader "Ush Horde " Togusova Kolb and his associates have undergone significant changes since the autumn of 1917 until the beginning of 1918 ushzhuzovtsy If the first line of support for the alliance with the Socialist Revolutionary Party , then in January 1918 were actively involved in work on the establishment and strengthening of Soviet power in the field. Since the beginning of 1918 ushzhuzovtsy objectively Bolsheviks became allies in their fight against alashordyntsami . Despite these challenges , the government of Alash Orda for a few months (December 1917 - March 1918 . ), Using the neutrality of the Cossacks and the weakness of the Bolsheviks led by the Soviets in the field, have taken steps to establish an administrative structure in the areas started to form militia . But the outbreak of the civil war will soon set up a new military- political situation in Kazakhstan , in which accelerated the polarization of opposing forces .
Capturing the workers and peasants councils power at the center and in the field since the early days called armed resistance of the overthrown
classes. The Civil War was a continuation of the struggle for power, so a clear distinction between the revolution and the civil war was not.
One of the first centers of the civil war in Kazakhstan began in late November 1917 in Orenburg - the administrative center of the Turgay region where the Orenburg Cossack chieftain Dutov overthrew Soviet power and arrested the revolutionary committee , headed by a delegate II All-Russian Congress of Soviets S. Zwilling . Armed with the center of the struggle against the Soviets and was in the Seven Rivers . 1 (14) November 1917 military council Semirecheskogo Cossacks formed the so-called army government . In the Faithful ( now Almaty ) flocked to the White Guard officers and cadets to fight the Soviets.
In November 1917, formed a hotbed of counter-revolution in Uralsk. Created here provincial army government soon dispersed the local council and seized power . These were the main government army forces белогвардейскогоконтрреволюционного movement in Kazakhstan . They relied on the White Guard officers, the kulak elements of Cossack villages and resettlement of villages and were supported by local Cadets, Socialist Revolutionaries , the Mensheviks , the leaders of the party " Alash ", " Shuro -e-Islam " and some other parties and political movements.
By the summer of 1918 the civil war took a large scale due to the activation of the imperialist states that in order to overthrow the Soviet government joined the Whites in the country. Their main striking force of the Czechoslovak Corps was created prior to the revolution of the number of Czechs and Slovaks - POW soldiers of Austria- Hungary. Parts of the body together with the internal counterrevolution took Akmola city , Petropavlovsk , Atbasar , Kustanai, June 11, 1917 the Soviet government was overthrown in Semipalatinsk.
In the summer of Ural , Akmola , Semipalatinsk region and most of the Turgay Whites were captured , they are also invaded by the Semipalatinsk region and in the Seven Rivers . The struggle for the restoration of Soviet power in the occupied areas at the heart of the White Guards wore a partisan character. In a large group of Seven Rivers sat peasant settlers in the center with . Cherkassky organized self-defense.
In the summer of 1918 the Soviet government kept only for the most part Semirechensk and Syrdarya regions , southern Turgay region and insignificant territory Bukeyev Horde.
With the help of the Czechoslovak Corps , which stood for the Entente countries , was established in Samara SR - White Guard -parameter government Komuch - Committee of the Constituent Assembly , in Omsk Siberian White Guard interim government, led by Admiral Kolchak. Ataman Dutov , expelled in January 1918 , again rebelled July 3, 1918 , captured Orenburg , cutting off the Soviet Turkestan from central Russia .
In a large-scale outbreak of the civil war and the overthrow of Soviet power in most parts of the Alash Orda Kazakhstan signed an alliance with Dutov in Orenburg, came into close contact with the Provisional Government in Omsk, Siberia and the Committee of the Constituent Assembly ( Komuch ) in Samara , has strengthened ties with the Ural and Siberian semirecheskim Cossacks and to jointly fight the Soviets . In June 1918 , the government of Alash Orda has adopted a series of decrees , under which all documents , legislative acts issued by the Soviet authorities in the territory of the Alash recognized as invalid and the rule of law are raised persecution of communists .
The leader of the Alash Orda A. Bukeikhanov together with A. Yermekov and head of the Military Department Captain X. Tohtamyshevym in July and August 1918 were negotiating in Samara, Omsk, and with representatives of the military departments and Komuch Siberian Provisional Government for assistance Alash Orda in the formation of the armed forces. The leaders of the Western Branch of the Alash Orda X. and J. Dosmu - Khamedova received from Samara through Komuch 600 rifles and a machine gun , promising in the near future to organize Kazakh troops in the amount of 2,000, Turgay group in September 1918, has been allocated 300 berdanok , 20 thousand rounds of ammunition and a large number of
armor. With Dutova started forming two cavalry regiments , one in Kustanai , the other - in Irgiz counties . In August 1918, at Semipalatinsk was formed first Alash cavalry regiment composed of 38 officers and 750 men. Formed by Whites and hastily trained troops Alash groups soon began to take part in the armed struggle against the Red Armii14 .
The armed opposition in Kazakhstan was part of the civil war in Russia . Therefore, not only the course of the fighting on the main fronts of the civil war had a decisive influence on the development and course of the struggle for Kazakhstan fronts, but the actions of the Kazakh military associations, the guerrilla movement and the uprising in the occupied territories of Kazakhstan, the Whites have been very helpful the main forces of the Red Army who fought on the Eastern and southern fronts. Especially clearly manifested in the release of Orenburg, Uralsk and the final defeat of Kolchak, exiled Whites and their allies from the northern and north- eastern Kazakhstan and the Seven Rivers . The Centre provided military aid to fight on the front parts of the Kazakhstan Red Army.
In the Civil War, successfully passed the construction of the Red Army. Together with the Russian in the Red Army entered the Kazakh workers . Decree of the Central Executive Committee on 29 May 1918 has been replaced by voluntary acquisition of compulsory military service . However, the significant time saved and volunteer units . In the summer of 1918 began to form national military forces as integral parts of one of the Red Army. The basis of the establishment of national units of the Red Army on the territory of Kazakhstan became Syrdarya , Semirechinskaya area Bukei Horde and Soviet counties Turgay region ( Turgay and Irgiz ) .
In 1919 was organized the first Orenburg Cossack Regiment of them . Stepan Razin. In defense of Uralsk in April, July 1919, the squadron participated Kazakh , later converted into the first regiment of the Kazakh Soviet model .
In the fight against the Whites , along with the workers of Kazakhstan participated by foreign workers and peasants - the Hungarians , Germans , Czechs , Poles and others , voluntarily entered into the ranks of the Red Army.
The enormous scale of the occupied territories of Kazakhstan, the Whites took the guerrilla movement and the people's uprising.
Major focus of the guerrilla movement was Kustanaisky county . Large scale it has taken in Akmola, Semipalatinsk regions . In the history of the guerrilla movement Marino, joined the uprising in Atbasar district of Akmola region . Reached a considerable size guerrilla movement in Pavlodar , Ust -Kamenogorsk , and Buhtarminsky Zaysan counties Semipalatinsk region , especially in Zyrianovsk , Katonkaragay , Genghis tauskoy , Shemonaikha and other townships . Become part of the history of the Civil War in Kazakhstan events such as Cherkasy defense, guerrilla action "Mountain Eagles" Tarbagataya and Altai. Historical famous was the valiant struggle of 22 -yi 25th Chapaevsky divisions, the heroic defense of Uralsk and Orenburg.
The defeat of the main forces of Kolchak's army on the Eastern Front in the summer of 1919 created the necessary conditions for the release of the Western, Northern, North -Eastern Kazakhstan and Seven Rivers . At the end of 1919 the main territory of Kazakhstan was released from the Whites . In March 1920, he was eliminated last edge of civil war in the North - Kazakhstan Semirechye front.
Major military operations on the territory of Kazakhstan took place under the guidance of such distinguished commanders , as Frunze , Tukhachevsky , VI Chapaev and talented commanders IP Belov , I. Kutyakov , A. Imanova etc.
The successes of the Red Army in the fight against the Whites , unrest and uprisings in the Alash shelves , escape horsemen from the ranks of Alash police hastened the split in the ranks of alashordyntsev . This process is irreversible after the announcement in March, the Central Executive Committee
RSFSR amnesty Alash Orda and the transition to the side of Soviet power of one of the leaders of the Alash Orda Baitursynov and a large group of his supporters.
As osvobzhdeniya Kazakhstan Whites recovered from the Soviet authorities . July 10, 1919 decree of the CPC of the RSFSR was organized by the Revolutionary Committee of Management Kazakh edge ( Kazrevkom ) .
At first it was composed of : S. Pestkovsky (chairman ), A. Baitursynov, V. Lukashev Dzhangildin A. , M. Tunganchin , S. Mendes B. Karataev . At various times, the members were Kazrevkoma Aitiev A. , S. Argynshiev , Avdeev , G. Alibeyov , B. Karaldin .
Kazrevkom concentrated in the hands of the " Higher Military and civilian control of the edge ," and his main task was to prepare the conditions for the Constituent Congress of Soviets of the edge to form the Soviet state of the Kazakh people . It so happens that this is essentially the emergency authority of the revolutionary government in Kazakhstan had to carry a huge amount of work the various plan , prepare and conduct the Constituent Congress of Soviets of Kazakhstan
Functions are extremely complex situation Kazrevkomu imposed civil war. It was she who identified military- civilian character Kazrevkoma . Another important task was Kazrevkoma task of collecting all the indigenous Kazakh land together , ie the formation of the territorial integrity of the future of the Kazakh Soviet state . At the same time Kazrevkomu had to be involved in the solution of problems of food supply of the army , the supply of bread and other food products to the center, the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic , that is the main element of the policy of " war communism ." Kazrevkom operated 15 months - from July 1919 to October 1920 Since its inception Kazrevkom led the great work of a preparatory nature for the proclamation of Soviet autonomy of the Kazakh people .
August 17, 1920 SNK RSFSR considered and approved the draft Decree on the Kazakh Republic.
August 26, 1920 the Central Executive Committee and the CPC of the RSFSR adopted a signed MI Kalinin and Lenin decree "On the formation of the Kirghiz (Kazakh) Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic " in the RSFSR , with its capital in the city of Orenburg.
Held on 4-12 October 1920 in the mountains. Orenburg founding congress of Soviets of Kazakhstan adopted the Declaration of the rights of migrant Kyrgyz (Kazakh ) ASSR , which enshrined the creation of the Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic as a republic of Soviets of Workers , the labor of the Kazakh people , peasants , Cossacks , Red Army Deputies , part of an autonomous entity in the Russian Federation. He was elected to the Central Executive Committee ( CEC) , headed by S. Mendesheva and the Council of People's Commissars ( SNK ), headed by V. Radus -Zen'kovich .
Use of materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires written or oral permission from the Board of Editors or the author. Hyperlink to Qazaqstan tarihy portal is necessary. All rights reserved by the Law RK “On author’s rights and related rights”. To request authorization email to email@example.com or call to (7172) 79 82 06 (ext.111)