The social and economic relations in Kazakhstan in the second half of the XIX century.
Completion of accession of Kazakhstan to Russia brought essential changes in empire policy concerning the Kazakh edge. Military and colonial actions having attached Semirechye and the Southern Kazakhstan, the tsarism came to the Central Asian base, having forced out English influence in the region. Having used a favorable international situation, the Russian Empire, being guided by the far-reaching political interests, I established in Kazakhstan a colonial mode.
Roughly developing industry of the mother country more and more needed raw materials sources, labor. Rich with natural resources, livestock raw materials the Kazakh edge drew long ago attention of the Russian businessmen. However development of the huge region with different natural and geographical conditions demanded from ruling circles of carrying out administrative-territorial, judicial and others нововведений1. Charters about the Siberian, Orenburg Kazakhs 1822 — 1824 in essence liquidating the khanate in Kazakhstan (except for Bukeev-skaya, or the Internal horde), opened a scope for governmental and private Cossack colonization, but couldn't destroy for eyelids the remained forms of government. The Rodoplemenny structure of the Kazakh society (court биев, the power of sultans) generally continued to keep former value though creation of district system, replacement of nomads with centuries of familiar spots began to undermine a basis of political system and economic way of the autonomous population.
Carrying out a management system of management was favored also by position of the empire which have expanded in the borders. After serfdom cancellation the government of Russia carried out a number of the reforms which radically have changed a current of socio-political life: territorial, judicial, city, etc. Development of capitalism went "to depth" and in breadth.
In these conditions Russia put forward a problem of radical withdrawal pains of a former control system of Kazakhstanom2.
For preparation of the draft of the Provision on management of the Kazakh steppe the government in 1865 formed the so-called Steppe commission. By reform preparation the mood of broad masses wasn't taken into account. Carrying out radical reforms which would promote increase of material well-being and wellbeing of Kazakhs was supported by C.Valikhanov. He suggested to enter system of administrative board in Kazakhstan on the basis of national self-government. In "A note about judicial reform" he considered as the major for the Kazakh people social and economic innovations. On July 11, 1867 tsar Alexander II signed the draft of the Provision on management of Semirechensky and Syr-Darya areas; On October 21, 1868 — the draft of the Provision on management of Turgaysky, Ural, Akmolinsky and Semipalatinsk areas. Thus, "The temporary provision" on management of Kazakhstan was prepared by tsarism on the basis of reasons of government officials with active participation of sultans of Seydalin, Chingiza Valikhanova, Musa Chormanov, etc. Managements of the Semipalatinsk, Akmolinsky areas opened in 1854, Semirechensky — 3 underwent 1866 changes. Reform captured for the first time all Kazakh edge though the Bukeevsky (Internal) horde where the hansky power stopped the existence in 1845, according to the draft of the Temporary provision departed in structure of the Astrakhan province.
In turn, areas shared on districts, districts — on the volost.
Except the military and civil power, conducting diplomatic relations was imputed a duty of the Turkestani governor general with neighboring states — China, Iran, etc.
The new control system loosened patriarchal and feudal way of life of nomads, limited the power of sultans, биев and foremen. Implementation of reforms of 1867 — 1868 led to weakening of influence of the patrimonial aristocracy that was reflected in their legal, economic and political status.
Administrative management had pronounced military character. At the head of areas there were military governor generals (they are commanders of military districts), concentrated in the hands completeness of the military and civil power. Nerazdelennost of the military and civil authorities was the principle of the administrative device of the Kazakh steppe on new reform.
Under the Temporary provision on management in steppe areas of 1868 and to the Provision on management in the Turkestani region of 1867 the volost manager focused the police and administrative power in the hands. He watched preservation "tranquillity and an order", payment of taxes and any duties from the population. Into its duties entered a judgment carrying out биев. Aulnye foremen within the competence fulfilled the same duties, as volost managers. Kazakh шаруа on the shoulders I bore still unreasonably tyazheluyuzemsky duty: I contained aulno-volost administration, I brought funds for correction of bridges, post paths, I provided with supplies military units.
Reform of 1867 — 1868 founded the military and judicial commissions and the district courts operating on the basis of all-imperial laws. At the same time feudal courts биев in auls and courts казиев in kishlaks of Syr-Darya area were kept. The crimes committed out of steppe areas, criminal and civil cases of Kazakh cattle-farmers understood district judges on the basis of the Russian laws.
Provisions 1867 — are entered 1868 temporarily in the form of experience for two years. However this "experience" because of possible negative reaction of local population was tightened more than for twenty years. Only at the end of 80 — the beginning of the 90th of the XIX century the imperial authorities started completion of introduction of administrative and judicial reform. On June 2, 1886 the Provision on management Turkestani краем4 was accepted. On March 21, 1891 — the Provision on management Akmolinsky, Semipalatinsk, Semirechensky, Ural, and Turgaysky areas.
Still big force was got by the power of the governor general. The regional board was equated to provincial board of the central regions of Russia. In the large cities police departments, and in others — police pristavstvo were created. Under the Provision of 1891 disputes on the land questions between aulny foremen within the volost solved volost congresses, and between owners of tilt carts — aulny. The crucial role belonged to volost managers and aulny foremen. In this regard between communities there was the most severe fight for carrying out in volost managements and aulny foremen of the candidate whom elected for three years.
There were essential changes and in the field of the judicial device. The system of the Russian vessels developed, according to the Provision on management Turkestani and Steppe edges, of such links, as world judges, regional courts and the Ruling senate as the highest judicial authority. The court биев was modified also. In a form of biya it appeared the elective national judge. This innovation also struck blow to traditional court of Sharia.
Reforms of 1867 — 1868 and the subsequent innovations caused a protest of Kazakhs. Already in the first half of the 60th of the XIX century in Kazakhstan, especially in Younger жузе, colonial oppression began to amplify. It created preconditions for growth of discontent of workers of masses which could pour out in open performance against tsarism.
Changes in the territorial and administrative device and social and economic development of Kazakhstan caused acceptance of the new tax system which was equitable to interests colonial empire. Despite a tendency of growth of the settled and agricultural population, nomads were bulk of taxpayers: in 1880 they made 90,5, in 1897 — 82,0%.
The Kibitochny tax represented a form of the state tax on the Kazakh population of 2 rub 75 to. from a tilt cart in a year in Semirechensky and Syr-Darya areas, 3 rub from a tilt cart in a year in four steppe areas. In the Internal Horde the special system of the taxation functioned. Earlier raised collecting зякет and согум merged in uniform monetary collecting — a tax from cattle.
The tax legislation entered proportional system of collection of taxes, the formal accounting of material welfare of various groups was eliminated even. It had pronounced political character. New administrative division didn't correspond for eyelids to the developed order of use of pastures. Letovki, winterings of one sort often appeared in different administrative-territorial divisions that complicated using the earth. All this served as the reason of revolt of Kazakhs of Turgaysky and Ural areas in 1868.
Revolt arose spontaneously and lasted from December, 1868 to October, 1869. It had the expressed anti-colonial character.
The Kazakhs led by large ancestors, boycotted the governmental commissions, showed armed resistance to imperial groups. So, on May 6, 1868 left with the commission from the Orenburg line von Shtempelya's group as a part of 200 sabers and an infantry company at the lake Dzhaman-Si was attacked by 20 000 Kazakhs who kept it in a siege within seven days. The group came back to the line, having lost all fodder and the food.
Fight Kazakh шаруа against the feudal lords was especially long. From March to June, 1869 41 attacks on auls биев, sultans, volost managers, foremen were made. 3 000 people in total participated in them. Scope of revolt in Turgaysky and Ural areas disturbed local authorities and the central government. On revolt suppression large retaliatory groups were set to the steppe. In the Ural area groups of lieutenant colonel Rukin, count Komarovsky, group under team of governor general Verevkin, etc. operated. I conducted goes the Viy of weak organization, spontaneity, existence of disagreements between certain heads insurgents suffered defeat. And, of course, as well as in the previous performances шаруа, inconsistency and treachery temporarily taken part in revolt биев and foremen promoted rather fast suppression of revolt.
Revolt of peasants on the peninsula of Mangyshlak also was connected with introduction of Temporary situation in 1869 in the Ural and Turgaysky areas. The land question at adayevets with introduction of Situation rose even more sharply 6. Indignation of introduction of new system of taxes strengthened their resistance to carrying out in Situation life. The Mangyshlaksky police officer lieutenant colonel Rukin with group in 38 Cossacks, at four tools and translator Bekmetov accompanied Biya B. Mayaeva, managers of offices (only 60 people), with a transport left on March 15, 1870 35 camels in the natural boundary Kurup towards to otkochevyvayushchy auls. Rukin's appearance with group in the steppe was the cause of revolt. To Buzachi under the leadership of shepherd Dosan Tazhiyev, Iza Tlenbayev went about 200 Kazakhs armed with 30 guns. Within a week (on March 15 — 21) imperial group there passed Buurla, Kunansa, Tubekuduk's wells, the natural boundary Umankol, a well Usak freely. But further during fight Rukin's group was crushed, wounded Rukin was shot. The victory inspired insurgents.
Revolt extended on all peninsula. Workers of fisheries of a slobodka of a fort Aleksandrovsky and villages Nikolaev gave up work, seized boats. From the vessels which have been taken away in the Sarytassky gulf from fishery managers, workers formed a peculiar flotilla which participated later in a siege of the Aleksandrovsky fort. The adayevets detained in the fall of 1869 by imperial retaliatory groups joined Kazakh workers, in the Embensky district. The quantity of the risen reached 10 thousand people. On April 5, 1870 the risen attacked the Aleksandrovsky fort, the Nikolaev village, burned beacons at a fort, crushed strengthening Bottom where stocks of army garrison, at home, property of dealers were stored. However the gun-fire forced them to depart. Revolt caused alarm not only in the local colonial authorities, but also in the General staff in Petersburg.
At this time considerably influence of England in Iran amplified. The imperial government, preparing for a campaign against the Khivan khanate, focused armies near Krasnovodsk. The center of Mangyshlaksky revolt appeared in the back of these armies. Suppression of revolt was assigned to the deputy of the Caucasus. At the end of May from the Caucasus to Mangyshlak the battalion of the Apsheron regiment, two rifle companies, two companies of the linear battalion, four companies of the Dagestan regiment, two hundred tersky Cossacks were thrown, at four tools. Despite the self-sacrificing resistance of Kazakhs-adayevtsev, revolt it was suppressed. Imperial armies pursued them: the Caucasian — on Mangyshlak, Orenburg — on northern Lithuanians.
In three months Mangyshlak was occupied with imperial armies. The imperial government severely finished with "rebellious". At this time governor general N. A.Kryzhanovsky received the order of Minister of War Milyutin "approximately to punish rebels". After revolt defeat his leaders I.Tlenbayev, D. Tazhiyev, I.Kulov with the adherents and auls and many adayevets who were actively participating in revolt and being afraid of prosecution of imperial chasteners, in December, 1870 passed to borders of the Khivan khanate. In revolt on Mangyshlak anti-feudal fight was expressed poorly that is explained by existence of the patrimonial remnants which were slowing down development of class consciousness of nomads. The main feature of revolt consisted that wide layers of workers actively participated in it. Having cruelly suppressed revolt, the Caucasian administration collected with remained on; Mangyshlak 8 thousand tilt carts a kibitochny tax and different collecting for the sum of 57 901 rub. Contribution was imposed on adayevets at a rate of 90. one thousand rams. Revolt in Mangushlak was directed by the edge against colonizer policy of tsarism.
Cancellation of a serfdom didn't resolve an agrarian question in Russia. In these conditions the imperial government accepted a number of measures for derivation of peasants from revolutionary movement, in particular made active resettlement policy. By colonization of Siberia, the northern, western and southeast regions of Kazakhstan the tsarism expected to move peasants from internal provinces and to create in their person a social support on national suburbs. Systematic resettlement of Russians and the Ukrainian peasants almost in all areas of edge began at the beginning of the 70th g of the XIX century and mass character gained in the 80th g.
The imperial government developed and approved on July 13, 1889 the special Provision on voluntary resettlement of rural inhabitants and petty bourgeoises on state lands and about an order of reckoning of persons of the marked estates, "moved in former time". In Situation areas of resettlement in Tomsk and Tobolsk provinces, and also Semirechensky, Akmolinsky and Semipalatinsk areas specifically were defined. "provisional rules" of 1893 concretized separate articles of Provision of 1889. For example, interests of the immigrants old residents allocated with the earth at a rate of 15 дес were considered. on soul. Resettlement of peasants to the Kazakh region was accompanied by withdrawal of lands at Kazakh nomads. Only from 1885 to 1893 it was withdrawn from using of indigenous people of Akmolinsky area 251 779 дес. lands 24 resettlement sites with the population of 10 940 male souls also are formed, and in Semipalatinsk area for the same period was withdrawn 33 064 дес. arable land at Kazakh шаруа. Especially big flow of immigrants went to Semirechensky area. In 12 years (since 1868 — 1880) here moved 3 324 families, 2 099 formed settlements of them, and 1 225 families located in the cities.
In 1889 the Law "About Resettlement of Rural Inhabitants and Petty Bourgeoises on State Lands" was adopted. In 1891 and 1892 the law extended on Turgaysky and Ural areas. According to it, resettlement movement concentrated in government hands, and resettlement to east areas required special permission; unauthorized resettlement was limited. But the aspiration of the imperial authorities somehow to settle become spontaneous process of resettlement didn't work well. Independent occupation by peasants of the Kazakh lands proceeded. The crop failure of 1891 — 1892 induced the mass of peasants from the European Russia to move to the east in search of free lands. During this period to the Urals passed about 30, to Semirechensky and Syr-Darya areas — 12 thousand peasants.
Possibility of connection of Kazakhstan through railway lines with Siberia and Privolzhsky district was pushed by the government to accelerate resettlement development of Kazakhstan. For this purpose expedition under the leadership of F.A.Shcherbina carefully surveyed 12 districts of Amolinsky, Turgaysky and Semipalatinsk areas. Officially main goal экспедицииФ.А. Shcherbina there was a studying of a condition of economic development of the local nomadic population. Naturally, expedition turned a nimaniye and on resettlement settlements. Expedition materials ыли are used by tsarism for further expropriation of surplus" the Kazakh earth though expedition work as a whole ыла is apprehended unsatisfactorily.
However unauthorized assignment by tsarism of the Kazakh lands, replacement of local population in desert, of little use; мли, an arbitrariness of imperial officials caused resistance of the azakhsky population which was repeatedly pouring out in armed golknoveniye with imperial retaliatory groups.
The colonizer orientation of an agrarian policy of tsarism led to gradual change of a ratio of number of nomadic and settled population. In the second half of XIX — the head of ES of century the nomadic economy of Kazakhs began to experience strong influence of external economic factors from the developing capitalist Russia. New farm patterns were formed: settled and cattle breeding and settled and agricultural. In the course of their addition there were most various transitional farm patterns, also land use forms at the same time changed — the percent of private land use and the private landed property increased. By the end of the XIX century the nomadic economy remained in the remote steppe regions of Kazakhstan: Prisyrdaryinsky areas, in steppes of the Central Kazakhstan, about Betpak-Dala's suburbs, on Mangyshlak, in Semipalatinsk, Akmolinsky areas. Already seldom it was possible to find purely nomadic economy which hasn't been connected with agriculture and a gnokosheniye in northern areas. Kochevnichestva the baysky farms of the old feudal type which still have resisted under the pressure of the new phenomena, mostly owing to century traditions adhered generally. But also these nomadic farms had some differences from nomadic economy of the past.
Expansion of mutually advantageous contacts with the market, fairs редопределило changes and in structure of herd of Kazakhs. The Russian merchants, especially after serfdom cancellation, showed keen interest in horses. Kazakh bye quickly caught the outlined tendencies and increased herds of horses. Only in the Kustanay district for 1865 — 1879 the specific weight of sheep in herd fell with 86 to 44,6, and horses grew with 6,8 to 37,7%.
Needs of the large Russian cities for beef meat caused growth of a number of cattle: in the same Kustanay district of Turgaysky area cattle made century 1855 of 17% of all livestock, and in 1898 — already 23. Semipalatinsk, Turgaysky areas, and also Akmolinsky, Ural were the main cattle breeding areas. Though the snovny livestock of cattle concentrated in hands of the nomadic population, nevertheless the part of cattle was in hands of settled inhabitants.
Under the influence of development of capitalism and resettlement movement process of subsidence of nomads was accelerated. In basins of the Urals River and Tobol where enough of a precipitation dropped out, Kazakhs plowed up the steppe сабанами (primitive plows), without resorting to an artificial irrigation. On coast of Syr-Darya, Emba, Irgiz, Turgaya, Sarysu were engaged in irrigation agriculture. However aspiration of colonial administration by resettlement of peasants from internal provinces, Cossacks from Siberia, Orenburzhye to create the new economic centers making grain products, conducted to narrowing of land fund of an aulny community, limited possibilities of Kazakhs to be engaged not only cattle breeding, but also agriculture. The governor general of Turkestani edge count Sukhotelen considered harmful to encourage arable farming among Kazakhs and quite often forbade them to sow on new участках7.
Further usurpation of communal lands and establishment of a colonial control system were accompanied by strengthening of social differentiation of the Kazakh society. The considerable part of farms located near the Russian settlements and the cities, gradually began to be involved in the market relations. It created the soil for decomposition of nomadic economy. In 70 — 80 XIX century withdrawal of impoverished Kazakhs on various crafts and in the mining industry in search of earnings amplifies.
At the end of XIX — heads of the XX century in the Kokchetav district джатаки made 4,6, in northern volosts of the Atbasarsky district — 5,3, in the southern 7,9% from total Kazakh хозяйств8. On the economic and social situation the dzhatachestvo was being formed rural proletariat. The part of urban proletariat grew from the environment джатаков also. Being out of the Kazakh communities, they early joined more progressive forms of economy, at the same time losing traditional patrimonial ties. Dzhatachestvo promoted deepening of economic differentiation of a nomadic aul, was the intermediary between an aulny community and the Russian resettlement settlements and городами9.
In the last quarter of the XIX century in Kazakhstan industrial production arose. In the middle of the XIX century existence in Kazakhstan many types of minerals was known. Since 60th of the XIX century the Russian businessmen began to take out the capitals to the Kazakh region and to create the industrial enterprises on the basis of a number of mineral deposits. In 70 — the 80th the industry on processing of agricultural raw materials — maslodelny, tanning, flour-grinding, etc. quite intensively developed. The main centers of the processing enterprises were the North Western and East Kazakhstan. The considerable level of development was reached by the tanning industry.
It is possible to consider as a rudiment of the chemical industry Shymkent santoninny plant. The plant founded in 1882 successfully exported the production to England, America, Germany, India and Japan. In the southern areas, in Shymkent and Turkestan some hlopkoochistitelny plants generally worked. The tobacco industry was presented by two enterprises of small power in. True, based in 1875 and 1900.
On the Aral Sea, on the lake Karabash, in the Pavlodar district salt fields were developed. On Baskunchak trade in 1867 it was made 54 847, in 1870 — 1267 994, in 1880 - 2 800 000 pood. salts.
In basins of the Urals River, Emba, Irtysh, on Aral and Kaspiysk the seas of considerable scale reached fishery. This branch became trade. Lakes Zaisan and Balkhash were the traditional centers of fishing. The vast majority of lakes where table salt was extracted, was in northwest and western part of Kazakhstan. In the Steppe Northern district (Akmolinsky and northwest part of Semipalatinsk area) salt was extracted on Big Kalkamansky, Small Kalkamansky, Dzhamantuzsky, Koryakovsky, Karasuysky, Chakchaksky озерах10.
Rather long in Kazakhstan small, technically backward enterprises which on output and number of workers can be ranked as the category of craft institutions worked. But at the end of XIX — heads of the XX centuries acted on the territory of Kazakhstan already and rather large enterprises totaling on 300 — 500 workers: Spassky copper-smelting plant, Uspensky mine, Karaganda save, the Ekibastuzsky and Riddersky enterprises. Rather developed industry I was mining. In total in Kazakhstan from 1855 to 1893 it was melted 151 182 pood. lead, 883rd pood. silver, 219 186 pood. draft copper, 484 542 pood. pure copper.
The industry of Kazakhstan, especially mining, coal and oil became object of attention of foreign capitalists. Spassko-Uspensky, Atbasarsky copper, Riddersky mines, Karaganda and Ekibastuzsky coal save, a number of oil fields were sold to foreign capitalists. Industrialists of the USA, Germany, Belgium, Sweden, etc. countries were holders of actions of Joint-stock company of Spassky copper ores.
Formation of local working class is connected with development of the industry also.
Development of the Russian capitalism in breadth, its advance to national suburbs, operation of the richest sources of raw materials, expansion of sales markets were accompanied by creation of an extensive network of bank branches and credit учреждений11.
The credit system of Kazakhstan as part of a financial system of the Russian Empire consisted of offices of the State bank, branches of commercial banks, banks of srednekapitalistichesky layers of the city (society of the mutual credit and city public banks), and also credit cooperation and other establishments of the small credit. Offices of the State bank in the territory of Kazakhstan arose first of all in the centers of commerce and industry activity of edge: Uralsk (1876), Petropavlovsk (1881), Semipalatinsk (1887), Omsk (1895), Right (1912). From 57 branches of the Siberian trade bank in the regions of Kazakhstan 12,3% functioned seven, i.e. The second place on number of branches in the territory of the region was taken by the Russian commerce and industry bank which had big investments in crediting of a trade turnover. Offices in Petropavlovsk (1904), Right (1908), Kustanai (1909), Uralsk (1909), Pavlodar were open for them (1916) . The first place among areas of Kazakhstan by number of credit institutions was taken by Akmolinsky area. From nine largest Petersburg commercial banks in the territory of Kazakhstan the Siberian trade bank founded in 1879 12 had the greatest number of branches
Development of the capitalist relations has essential impact and on trade development. The Russian trade capital got into the most remote regions of edge, connecting local cattle breeding economy with the markets of Russia, Central Asia, Western Europe even more closely. The main object of trade there was a cattle. Every summer only through the Sarysusky district in the center of Russia from Akmolinsky, Karkaralinsky and Sarysusky districts about 60 thousand heads of cattle and to 200 000 sheep were overtaken. In ever-increasing sizes bread was taken out. The cities became the large centers of trade in bread: Uralsk, Orenburg, Semipalatinsk. In the 80th of the XIX century only in Semipalatinsk accumulated to 380 thousand pood. wheat and to 500 thousand pood. wheat flour, in Pavlodar — to 200 thousand pood. grains. In view of profitability of sale and export to adjacent regions of bread local capitalists put the means in the flour-grinding industry, in which at the beginning of the XX century. the greatest concentration of the capital was reached.
— the head of the XX century local merchants began to practise a new form of trade in the second half of XIX — exhibition. As the largest fairs were considered Kuyandino-Botovsky in the Karkaralinsky district, Tainchikulsky in Petropavlovsk, Konstantinovsky in Akmolinsky, Petrovsky in Atbasarsky, Karkarinsky in Vernensky the districts which turns reached the impressive sizes. The volume of commercial transactions in largest of them Kuyandino-Botovsky at the end of the XIX century made to 3 million rub 13 Main goods of a supply there was a cattle and livestock products. At large fairs of Akmolinsky area Konstantinovsky and Tainchikulsky — such goods made in a total turnover 76 and 87,4%14. By number of fairs leading position I held Semipalatinsk область15. Stability of exhibition trade was explained by the insufficient development of means of communication interfering establishment of steadier trade exchange between the chief suppliers of cattle — nomads and large "skotopromyshlennik", and also hundred-being traditions of exhibition trade with which terms of trade the nomad was a sign, a nomadic way of life of radical inhabitants of the steppe enough.
Development of the industry and domestic trade was promoted in many respects by construction of the railway lines which have connected Kazakhstan to Siberia and other regions of the Russian Empire. For the last decade XIX century in Kazakhstan 482 versts of rail lines were constructed.
In the second half of the XIX century Kazakhstan conducted traditional trade with Uzbekistan. Tashkent located on a joint of Kazakhstan and Central Asia, was the center in which goods not only from the southern regions of edge, but also from China, India etc. were flown down. Big markets of Shymkent, Sayrama, Mankenta, Turkestan attracted dealers from many regions of Central Asia.
The Kazakh steppe was transit in trade with Mongolia. B1860 of in Urge (Ulan Bator) founded the first Russian business concern with which merchants of East Kazakhstana16 came into business contacts. Semipalatinsk became the center of trade of Kazakhstan with Mongolia.
Territorial proximity of Kazakhstan with Xinjiang and mutual benefit in a trade exchange induced Russia and China to maintain these relations. Kuldzha, owning huge caravanserais in Dzhinkho, Urumqi, Manas, Aksu, Karashar became the large center of trade of the Kazakhstan merchants in Xinjiang, Be rude, the Tourist's fan and Kashgar.
In trade with the western regions of the Tsinsky empire the important role belonged Kazakh купцам17. Volume and forms of the Kazakh-Chinese trade in many respects depended on nature of political relationship of Russia with China and situations in a border area though the main conditions of border trade were stipulated by the Petersburg contract of 1881.
Considerable changes underwent also the cities of Kazakhstan which have become the centers of public and social and economic life. In the second half of the XIX century the most part of city settlements was among the small cities. For example, in Syr-Darya area the small cities made 71%.
On general population census of 1897 population of Kazakhstan on areas was following: Akmolinsky — 1279 818; Semipalatinsk — 973 589; Syr-Darya — 1166 116; Turgaysky
— 728 057; Ural — 801 975 thousand people. The most numerous
the group was made by Kazakhs.
The Russian population was distributed unevenly: Akmolinsky area — 56,7; Ural — 40,8; Turgaysky — 37,8; Semirechensky
— 23,5; Semipalatinsk — 24,0; Syr-Darya — 6,2%.
These censuses allow to determine the number of the Siberian, Ural and Semirechensky Cossacks: The Ural area — 114 166; Akmolinsky — 74 707; Semipalatinsk — 28 717; Semirechensky — 33 757 thousand people.
Semirechensky, Syr-Darya areas — 14,4 and 3,7 persons on sq.km had the greatest population density.
In Akmolinsky, Semipalatinsk and Ural areas density on 1 sq.km made 1,6; 1,4; 1,4 inhabitants. The smallest population density was in Turgaysky area — 1,1218.
These censuses of 1897 speak about serious changes in dynamics of number, ethnic, gender and age structure of the population of Kazakhstan at the end of the XIX century. Growth of number of not indigenous people promoted creation in the cities and other settlements of new types of educational institutions, scientific, cultural and educational organizations, the organizations and establishments, to acceleration of development of natural richness of extensive edge.
As a whole, the social and economic processes happening in the second half of the XIX century, deeply mentioned all spheres of life of Kazakhstan, having caused positive changes in economic structure of an aul, the resettlement village, in creation of the first rather large centers of the processing and mining industry, in introduction in system of trade of elements of usury, private business, in deepening of interrelations between the cities and a rural environment in the conditions of the entry of Russia in the imperialism stage which component was colonial Kazakhstan.
1 . The area of the Siberian Kazakhs founded in 1824 and abolished in 1854 in connection with formation of Semipalatinsk and Akmolinsky areas, occupied space in 7 580 000 sq. versts. (TsGA RK. t. 345, оп. 1 . 38. l. 2). i.e. the considerable part of the Kazakh earth remained out of influence of the Russian administration.
2 . See: Venyukoye M. About new division of Asian Russia//IRGO News. 1872 . T. 8 .
Page 312 — 324.
3 . Originally Semirechensky area was called Almaty area with центромв the settlement of Almaty, and Syr-Darya — Tashkent. In the course of project discussion Almatinskuyuoblast Semirechenskon (Dzhetysa) considered it necessary to call select committee. Settlement of Almaty. as Kazakhs before accession of the region to Russia called, was renamed into. True.
4 . Late this Situation underwent essential adjustment towards consolidation of the colonial power, in particular, under articles: 44 . 62, 64. 106, etc. (Center, state archive of the Republic of Uzbekistan, t. And — 1, оп. I, 699. l. 2 . 3, 13. 38).
5 . Suleymenov V. S. About the administrative device of the Kazakh steppe on reforme1867-1868//the Messenger of AN KAZSSR. 1951 . No. 2. Page 118.
6 . See: Kasymbayev Zh. K. About some questions of history of national liberation movement in Kazakhstan in the second half of the XIX century//History and a historiography of national liberation movements the second floor. XIX \ the head of the XX centuries in Central Asia and Kazakhstan. Tashkent. 1989 . Page 91.
7 . Lobysevich F. I. Progress to Central Asia in the trade and diplomatic relation. SPb. 1900 . Page 81.
8 . Turgaysky newspaper. 1901 . March 13. No. 11.
9 . Kasymbayev Zh. K. About an otkhodnichestvo role in expansion of the market of wage labor in Kazakhstane:vt. floor. XIX century//Interrelations of the city and the village in their historical development. M. 1989: It: transition джатаков (otkhodnik) to settled life as a factor of expansion of the agrarian market in Kazakhstan: W. floor. XIX century//the Agrarian market in its historical development. M, 1991.
10 . ИгибаевС. To. Industrial workers of pre-revolutionary Kazakhstan (1861 — 1917). Alma-Ata. 1991 . Page 41.
11 . Friedman Ts. L. Banks and the credit in pre-revolutionary Kazakhstan. Alma-Ata, 1974. Page 16.
12 . Friedman Ts. L. Decree. slave. Page 16.
13 . TsGVIA of the Russian Federation. T. 1450 . Оп. 7 . І.
14 . TsGA RK. T. 369 . Оп. І. 2044. L. 105 .
15 . TsGIARF. T. 391 . Оп. І. 91. L. 315 .
16 . Kasymbayev Zh. K. Cities of East Kazakhstan (social and economic aspect). Alma-Ata, 1990. Page 62.
17 . TsGA RK. T. 64 . Оп. I. 6070. L. 68-60 (calculation - ours).
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