M. Kozybayev - the researcher of the history of Great Patriotic War
According to the historian V. Kliuchevsky, after scientist remain only books. M. Kozybayev’s merits in historical science are considerable. List of publications was 773 titles, including monographs summarizing courses, essays on the history of Kazakhstan, created at different times. The work of historian quite complicated, only time checks the quality of published books, papers and evaluates the creations. In this sense, each of the works of M. Kozybaev bears the sign of the times.
The special place in his heritage belongs to the work about the contribution of Kazakhstan to the victory over fascism. Among other Kozybayev’s research work there is a work that related to period of the formation of M. Kozybaev as a master and prominent scientist. This work was carried by today’s old name «Communist Party of Kazakhstan during the Great Patriotic War (1941–1945)». It was dedicated to the 20th anniversary of the Soviet victory over Nazi Germany. M. Kozybae’s first steps were associated with the study of the Great Patriotic War. In 1962 he defended his doctoral dissertation, «The experience of the Kazakh Communist Party leadership to industry and transport during the Great Patriotic War», in 1969 doctoral dissertation.
The scientific community and readers recognized M. Kozybayev as a researcher in already published doctoral dissertation «The Communist Party of Kazakhstan during the Great Patriotic War». In this dissertation was presented an analysis of twenty and seventy funds storage central, national, regional, party and state archives.
In addition, as author noticed, in the course of work on the topic were viewed sets of journals, as well as sets the central, national, provincial, municipal and circulation newspapers war years. Source base doctoral of M. Kozybaev surpassed many publications and scientific works of the time.
Currently preparing for the 60th anniversary of Victory, it should be noted that we cannot ignore the work of M. Kozybaev about Great Patriotic War, including «Kazakhstan — arsenal Front» (1970), «Renaissance frontline and the liberated areas of the USSR in the Great Patriotic War, 1941–1945 (New York, 1986), «The Soviet rear in the first period of the Great Patriotic War» (Wiley, 1988), etc.
Noticing his contribution to the development of this subject, we express our solidarity with the opinion of M. Kozybayev against abundant denigration of everything that was happened in the past. This note refers to the civilian government positions, as well as from scientific point of view.
The author of one of the first studies on the contribution of Kazakhstan in Victory, responding to allegations of lack of integrity, said: «Yes, something previously written differently. First, this was our view of the world, we were brought up differently, we came out of the «Soviet overcoat» and many do not understand the way that it should be, and therefore we were wrong. Second, we did not know much on many topics under the totalitarian regime was the most basic prohibition. Thirdly, our history for us was written by others. Today we are free and independent and nothing should prevent us independently monitor its history. «In this interview was described not only an opinion, but also scientific outlook of the researcher M. Kozybaev.
In these studies involved credible documentary evidence of the formation of military units in Kazakhstan for the front, presented reasoned, well-documented facts about the formation of bright and mobilizing the front infantry and cavalry divisions, brigades, construction and other departments.
Many pages of the M. Kozybayev’s work dedicated to the participation of Kazakhstan soldiers in the Great Patriotic War near Moscow, Leningrad, on the Baltic, at Stalingrad and the fights for the liberation of Ukraine, Belarus and Latvia.
On the basis of documentary evidence, M. Kozybaev told about the participation of Kazakhstan people in partisan detachments on the temporarily occupied by the enemy territories, as well as in European countries like Poland, Czechoslovakia, Belgium and France.
Thanks to the work M. Kozybaev became well-known: battle way of 316th (8th Guards named after Panfilov), 238th (30th Guards), 312th infantry divisions participating in the battles of Moscow; 29th (72th Guards), 38th (73th Guards) Stalingrad, Kursk and on the formation of the Dnieper; 310th and 314th in the battle for Leningrad.
M.Kozybaev participated in preparing 2-volume edition «Heroes of the Soviet Union are Kazakhstan people»(«Герои Советского Союза — казахстанцы») Unfortunately the book’s structure does not allow us to take into account the proportion of each in the drafting of collective labor, but the memory of the heroes deserve respect. This work has a paramount importance for the study of biographies of heroes of the Soviet Union, including our area: Alexander Matveev, Grigory Mikheev, Vasily Pogorelov, Nikolay Podorojniy, Timofey Pozolotin, etc.
Among the many problems of the specified subjects, they raised issues of development of Kazakhstan’s economy during the Great Patriotic War. According to M. Kozybaev, construction of Kuznetsk and Aktobe ferroalloy plants was a major victory for the military economy, ensuring the creation of a new base in the East metallurgy.
Interestingly enough was presented M. Kozybayev’s options of placement of evacuated enterprises. Thus, some of them were placed in Almaty repair plant, which was under construction. Aktobe Ferroalloy Plant received additional equipment of Zaporozhe Ferroalloys. M.Kozybaev noticed that others joined into existing factories and plants of republic. So, equipment of Kharkov Tobacco Factory was allocated at the Alma -Ata factory. Kharkov garment factory merged with the Alma-Ata clothing factory. There was a third way, when part of rebase enterprises from the front line remained with incomplete equipment. After these enterprises were united and created a new one.
As a result of huge efforts, noticed M. Kozybaev, country received Kounrad molybdenum, Balkhash copper and Karsaknaysky copper smelting plant started to work.
M. Kozybaev planned a new approach in assessment of the development level of agriculture in Kazakhstan in 1941–1945. He noted that the preservation of the old methods of management and planning of agriculture in wartime conditions gave rise to contradictions, which showed no account of the real situation. Thus, the decision to expand the acreage State Defense Committee in 1942 was an attempt to provide the population with food that had objective grounds just before the end of 1942. The new 1943 required other ways to resolve.
As a true researcher M. Kozybaev brought new approaches to the already accepted view in the front. For example, he noted that traditionally in the historical literature original starting to raise funds for the Soviet Army refers to the autumn of 1942 (initiative of Tambov farmers). M. Kozybaev observed: «In fact, it began with the first days of the war and had acquired a national character in the days of the battle for the capital».
Quite interesting work on the history of the revival of the forces is collaboration of Academician M. Kozybaev and Professor R.Karataeva on «National military forces in the Republics of Central Asia and Kazakhstan (1941–1945). It reveals the history and the problematic issues of national units in the Armed forces of the USSR, activities of the command on organization of combat training of units on patriotic and internationalist education personnel. This work was continued in the collective work «Historical experience of defending the motherland», covering the period 18th -20th centuries, which shows the combat history of the Volga units, formed on the territory of Kazakhstan during the Great Patriotic War.
Study of the problem «Great Patriotic War and Kazakhstan» by M.Kozybayev from one point of view represents about its versatility and from another point emphasizes personal contribution to the development of such an important topic.
The Republic of Kazakhstan was a big rear. It fully shared the hardships of wartime, adopted during the war not only equipment evacuated factories, enterprises, scientific and artistic associations, academic institutions of higher education, but also people who helped settle and continue to work under the rear.
M. Kozybayev’s contribution as researcher, citizen and patriot is constant emphasize on above mentioned problem of Great Patriotic War, specific study of military period and desire to preserve the memory of a harsh time in the memory of posterity, to cultivate a sense of Kazakhstan patriotism.
1. M. Kozybaev Historical Science of Kazakhstan: 40-80-ies. The twentieth century. Alma-Ata: Ѕazaј University, 1992. p. 106.
2. Academic Manash Kozybaev. Almaty: Atamґra 2001. p. 180.
3. Heroes of the Soviet Union — Kazakhstan. / / Ed. M. O. Dzhangalina etc. Almaty: Kazakhstan, 1968. T. 1–2.
4. M. Kozybaev Communist Party of Kazakhstan during the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945. Almaty: Kazakhstan, 1964. p. 68–69.
5. Ibid. p. 132–135.
6. N. Matyushkin USSR — the country of the great community of nations. M., 1953.
7. M. Kozybaev Communist Party of Kazakhstan during the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945. Almaty: Kazakhstan, 1964. p. 284.
(NKSU named after M.Kozybaeva)
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