Social shape of bays of Kustanay district (end of XIX beginning of XX centuries)
Introduction in 1868 in Kazakhstan "The temporary provision on management in Steppe areas of the Orenburg and West Siberian general governorships" began profound changes in traditional Kazakh society. They concerned not only administratively – political position of edge, but also public structure of Kazakhs, economy, culture of local population. Penetration of the commodity-money relations on the territory of Kazakhstan promoted integration of economy of edge into system of the all-Russian market. These two factors, in our opinion, were fundamental in the course of formation in the Kazakh society of new social groups. Owing to geographical proximity, similarity of climatic conditions of the Kustanay district with the neighboring territories of Russia, this process here developed more dynamically in comparison with other regions of Kazakhstan.
In the Soviet historiography research of a problem of a bays had unilateral and prejudiced character. The scientists investigating this subject, were limited to a framework Marxist-Leninist ideology dominating at that time in science and practice of the social order from existing political system. At a present stage of development of a national historiography there was a requirement of more objective and complex studying of questions connected with genesis, a place and a role of this social category in structure changing at a turn of centuries of traditional Kazakh society.
In this article attempt of the answer to the designated questions is made. It is factual, concerning to the bays\ surnames of Kustanay district most popular in considered time. In various written sources are mentioned, generally Mnaydar Klychbayev, Ismail Yamanchalov, Zhetpispy Andreev, Bermukhamed Aldiyarova's names, Saimaa Kadyrov, etc. The called persons not only had a reputation for wealthy people in the material relation, but also on – many years held various positions in local authorities. M. Klychbayev was throughout a row of years the volost manager Arakaragay volosts, B. Aldiyarov – the Saroy volost, S. Kadyrov – the Karabalyk volost. The governor of the Chubar volost many years was Yusup Yamanchalov, brother I.Yamanchalova. Zhetpispay Andreev during elections of the manager of the Saroy volost regularly competed with B. Aldiyarov. Elective campaign took place in the Kazakh volosts with use by warring parties of various methods, in particular, intrigues, briberies, prosecutions and even open quarrel and fight. The reasons of an aggravation of fight during election of volost managers are well-known. Achievement of the treasured purpose gave to candidates actually absolute power over the volost. Redistribution of land grounds, collecting from the population of a tax turned for volost managers into a source of a huge profit. In process of penetration into economy of the Kazakh aul of the commodity-money relations the earth, however, as well as a livestock, began to get market cost. In such situation the aspiration of volost managers to enrichment got other, than before, sense. Means from a profit became for them very important financial source in development of personal economy. Especially considerably this tendency was shown at the beginning of the XX century when process of colonization of the Kustanay district by peasants immigrants got considerable scales. To take, for example, Arakaragay volost which was close to Kostanay. Her manager M. Klychbayev headed more than twenty years the volost and on memoirs of contemporaries, had a reputation for the richest and influential among the Kazakh fights of the district. He was the large supplier of firewood and cattle in imperial treasury. Along with it Klychbayev was one of large producers of commodity grain. Annually under wheat with it it was sowed to one thousand dessiatinas of an arable land. Other source testifies that had three houses and one house belonging to it near Kustanai, was directly in the city. According to the author, he was one of prosperous and cultural feudal lords. The Kazakh population not only read it, but also was afraid. Klychbayev, along with execution of the administrative duties, took part in public life of the district. For example, in 1900 it was chosen in committee structure for affairs of Pokrovsk fair. This annual autumn fair took place that year in Kustanai from October 1 to October 10. The structure of committee displeased from one of the trading house of Abdulvaley Yaushev largest in Kustanai. Her representative addressed to the military governor of Turgay area with the application "for an explanation whom members of the committee, such as Kyrgyz Maynadar Klychbayev who isn't interested absolutely not in city affairs" were elected. That it after all took part in city affairs some facts testify. For example, on November 30, 1905 in Kustanai district congress of country chiefs at which the question of the structure of credit institution for issue of loans on the crop's eve to the Kazakh and Russian population was considered took place. In it officials of Resettlement management took part in Turgaysky area, forest areas, and also the Kustanay merchants V. M. Yaushev, N.A.Voronov, F.P.Kiyatkin, Items Stepanov. Among them also there was Arakaragay volost manager M. Klychbayev. By the way, known local poet Nurzhan Naushabayev had to him the matchmaker and took up positions of the treasurer and the cashier at volost board. M. Klychbayev Alim's brother along with other Kazakh fights and city merchants, consisted the full member of board of Society of a relief aid the needing pupil in average educational institutions of Kustanai, namely, a female gymnasium and real school.
Yamanchalov Ismail treated number of influential and prosperous families of the Kustanay district. In the beginning he was engaged in cattle buying up at local population and subsequently became the large cattle-farmer. At the beginning of the XX century it already had to 1000 horses and the cows, about 800 sheep. Due to the reduction of pastures during resettlement movement to the district, it passes to agriculture, buying agricultural stock (threshers, lobogreyka, mowing machines, etc.) . By 1915-1916 it had sowing grounds to 1000 dessiatinas. In the neighboring city of Troitsk Yamanchalov had a slaughter and in large lots delivered meat to the cities of the Central Russia. Possessing considerable means, it did charity work. In particular, on the means in the Chubar volost it constructed the building for volost management, office, address office and for carrying out congresses of national judges. In the fall of 1896 the aul’s school constructed on its means was open. Besides it allocated 1680 rubles for the contents at the school of teachers at the rate of 240 rubles a year.
In the district personality Zhetpispaya Andreeva, the native of Saroysky area wasn't less known. It not only possessed a solid condition, but also repeatedly took up a position of the national judge. The former swineherd, then the small buyer of cattle, it becomes subsequently the wholesale merchant and the land owner. Annually I sowed on 300 dessiatinas of an arable land. I had about 300 horses of the improved breed and about 100 milk cows. In a large number I delivered on the market wheat, oil and cattle. I had agricultural stock: 2 threshers, 5 лобогреек, 8 mowing machines, more than 15 plows, some winnowers, etc. Zhetpispay Andreev was one of the first who initiated idea of carrying out national congress for discussion of questions of development of the Kazakh society. Also it was among founders of the Kazakh periodicals. In March, 1907 in Troitsk there was the first newspaper in the Kazakh language, under the name "Kazakh" Z.Andreev was which publishers along with E.Imanbayevym also.
Dynamic development of economy of the district, growth of business activity of wealthy citizens caused origin of idea of transfer of the center of Turgay area from Orenburg to Kustanai. On January 7, 1908 this question was considered at meeting of the Kustanay City Council. Difficulties in implementation of a transport and mail service with Orenburg were the main arguments in favor of transfer of the residence of the Turgay governor to Kustanai the continuous growth of population in the city and the district, the leading role of Kustanai in trade development with other districts. Also the question of connection of Kustanai by the railroad with Chelyabinsk was raised. On July 7, 1908 the notice came from the Ministry of Internal Affairs addressed to the Turgay governor that the petition of City Council for transfer of an administrative center of area by the minister was rejected, and on railroad construction on state means there is no opportunity.
Construction of the highway was important for Kustanai. It had to break off isolation of the Kustanay market, having connected it with the all-Russian economy. The railroad nevertheless was constructed, but on private means. The Kustanay merchants Yaushev, Kiyatkin, Siyunin took part in her construction, etc.
Thus, we see that process of formation of bays’ farms in the Kustanay district during the considered period had some regularities. Existing practice of election to positions of local government, and also activity of elective persons created conditions for capital accumulation. Besides, penetration of the market relations into economy of the Kazakh aul caused appearance of enterprising persons who to adequately changed conditions began to conduct the farms. At the same time, growth of national consciousness created conditions for understanding of importance of development of education and national culture in the region. Carriers of progressive ideas were not only representatives of the Kazakh intellectuals but also as show the stated facts separate bay. All this allows reflecting more objectively a place, value and a role of bays’ farms in life of the Kazakh population of the Kustanay district.
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11 . TsGA RK. F.25. Оп. 1 . 1367. L.L. 2,13,14 .
B. N. Nurseitov, associate professor of history department of Kostanay state university by a name of A.Baytursynov
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