Culture of Kazakhstan in the second half of the XIX century.
Accession of Kazakhstan to Russia led to the fact that in order to study the geography, natural resources, economy , history, ethnography , scientists began to come here , travelers . In the XVIII century , in 1769, one of the first expeditions to the edge of the head of Pallas . The result of this was the work of " Journey to the different provinces of the Russian Empire" ( 1773 ) . In 1772, N. Markets published " Day notes journey of Captain N. Rychkova in the Kirghiz steppe - Kaisak in 1771 ." Major step in the study Russian in Kazakhstan was the publication in 1832 of books AI Levshina "Description of the Kirghiz Cossacks , or Kirghiz steppes and Kaisak hordes ." A central place among the representatives of Russian culture, who have made invaluable contributions to the study region, occupies VI Dahl, who in the years 1833-1841 , being an official for special assignments in the Orenburg governor , he studied folklore , life and customs of the Kazakhs. In 1833, during the collection of the material of the Pugachev rebellion in Orenburg and Uralsk visited Pushkin .
In the XIX century, Kazakhstan was among the researchers , scientists of international renown , such as PP Semenov- Tyan- Shan (1827 -19N 's), head of the Russian Geographical Society. He explored the Central Tien -Shan Mountains, traveling through the Altai , Semirechye and Central Asia. Under his leadership, has been compiled and published a multi-volume study, " Russia . Complete geographical description of the fatherland ." Two volumes of them , " Kirghiz territory " and " Turkestan " , devoted to Kazakhstan and Central Asia. It describes the geographical conditions, natural resources , history , way of life of Kazakhs. Also studied the geography , flora , fauna, Kazakhstan, its natural resources N. Severtsev , IV muskets. A great contribution to the study region has made orientalist , specialist in Turkic philology , ethnographer, St. Petersburg Academy of VV Radloff (1837-1918 years ) . He studied the customs , rituals and folklore of the peoples of the Altai, the northern regions of Kazakhstan , surveyed the Seven Rivers . His publication "Examples of folk literature of Turkic tribes" contain Kazakh fairy tales, epics , lyrics. Also known scientist - orientalist , archaeologist, linguist , Academician VV Velyaminov the laser (1830-1904 years ) in the books "Study on Kasimov kings and princes ," " Historical information about the Kirghiz kaysakah " consecrated many key questions in the history of Kazakhstan. History of the region studied AI Dobromyslov , N. Aristov , M. Krasovskiy and others. Data collection on the history , ethnography , geography also involved officers of the General Staff of the Russian administration officials , political exiles .
In the development of culture and social thought in Kazakhstan in the second half of the XIX century, the important role played by the scientific community and cultural institutions . Departments of Russian Geographical Society were opened in Orenburg ( 1868 ) , Omsk ( 1877 ), followed by Sub-Division in Semipalatinsk, and in 1897 - the department in Turkestan. They published collections , which published material on the history , ethnography and geography. They collaborated Kazakh intellectuals , for example, a corresponding member of the Orenburg Branch Geographic Society was Altynsarin who published collections of their own in his study. In the second half of the XIX century in Kazakhstan were established regional statistical committees , who published "reviews " of areas, including materials for statistics, history, ethnography and culture. For example, in Semipalatinsk regional statistical committee participated Abay . Engaged in the study of Kazakhstan and other scientific organizations : Society of Agriculture , lovers of archeology and history of the East , lovers of natural science , anthropology and Oriental Studies. In Kazakhstan began to open public libraries . One of the first public library was opened in 1883 in Semipalatinsk.
Acceding to the Russian influence on the development of education . Children of wealthy parents were educated in madrassas Bukhara. Samarkand , Khiva, Tashkent. Children ordinary nomads , mostly boys , get the basics of literacy musulmanskih maqtabs . Educational institutions secular began to open due to the need to prepare the officials of the colonial system: translators, clerks . Such were discovered in 1786 Asian school in Omsk, in the School of Government in 1789 in Orenburg , they were taught Russian and Kazakh children . In 1825, the Cadet Corps was established in Orenburg, and in 1846 - in Omsk, they prepared the military professionals and administrative officials. The first Kazakh secular school was opened in 1841 in Bukeyev Khanate , and in 1850 in Orenburg in the Boundary Commission . Poorly developed female education . Only thanks to the efforts of Altynsarin in 1887 , it opened a school for girls Irgiz . In the years 1890-1896 were opened Russian - Kazakh women's college in Thurgau, Kustanaj . Karabutak and Aktobe. The first professional educational institutions were Turkestan Teachers Seminary , founded in 1879 and Orenburg Kazakh teacher's school, opened in 1883. Later, teachers' seminaries were opened in Aktobe , Vern , Semipalatinsk, Uralsk. For all the pre-revolutionary period , they prepared 300 teachers Kazakhs. Also in the XIX century, were discovered agriculture and medical school , but there was not a single school .
In the second half of the XIX century lived and worked outstanding representatives of the Kazakh culture Ch Valikhanov Altynsarin , A. Kunanbayev . Chokan Valikhanov (1835-1865 years ) was born in the fortress Kushmurun to 12 years studying at a private school in 1847 and enrolled in 1853 graduated from the Siberian Omsk Cadet Corps with the rank of cornet Army cavalry. In 1855, as adjutant -general of the Governor of West Siberia Gasfort he took part in the trip from Omsk to Trans-Ili Alatau, where pawned strengthen the faithful. During this trip, he collected and compiled a wealth of material on the history , religion , customs and folklore of the Kazakhs. In 1856, he took part in the expeditions of the Ala- Kul to the Issyk -Kul , as well as to Kul'dzha . The results of these travels, he wrote : "The Diary of a trip to Issyk -Kul ", " Notes on the Kirghiz ." He recorded excerpts from the famous Kyrgyz epic " Manas " , and on the results of the trip to Kul'dzha - " Western province of the Chinese Empire and the city of Yining ." In February 1857 he was elected a full member of the Russian Geographical Society.
In the years 1858-1859 Charles Valikhanov first time since Marco Polo traveled to Kashgar, where he assembled a unique historical , ethnographic material , unique relics, manuscripts , letters , art . The result of this trip was the major work " On the state Altyshar or six cities in the eastern Chinese province of Nan Lu (Small Bukharin )"; 1856-1861 years - this time its stay in St. Petersburg. He worked at the Military Committee of the General Staff of the accounting , Asian Department , Geographical Society . Here he was in contact with the orientalist Vladimir Grigoriev , VVVelyaminov - Grain , A. Beketov , VP Vasiliev , writer Fyodor Dostoevsky, friendship which lasted more from Semipalatinsk , and he spoke with poets AM Maikov , J. P. Polonsky .
In the spring of 1861, he fell ill and was forced to return . April 10, 1865 in the village in the tract Tezek Cohen - Togan he died . Charles Valikhanov left a rich scientific heritage, which , besides the already mentioned works also included " Ablay ", " Kyrgyz genealogy ", " Arms Kirghiz in ancient times and their military armor " , "Notes on judicial reform ," " About Islam in the wilderness " ," Traces of shamanism among the Kirghiz " ," The Kirghiz encampments "and others. He left numerous sketches , drawings , sketches , drawings . His contribution to science is that it significantly reduced the white spots in the Russian and world science practically neglected at the time of the regions of Central Asia, Seven Rivers , Kyrgyzstan , East Turkestan . He assembled a unique material on the history , ethnography, folklore , literature, political, social and economic development of these lands. He was one of the first to introduce into scientific reservoir of historical sources such as the Kazakh and Kyrgyz epic folklore. He was the first in the formulation and solution of some key problems in the history of the Turkic peoples such as ethnogenesis , social structure, political situation , the national liberation struggle , the role of Islam in their lives.
During this period, actively worked Kazakh educator , social activist , teacher Ibrahim Altynsarin (1841-1889 years ) . Early lost his father, he was raised by his grandfather, the famous beating . troop sergeant Orenburg Border Commission Balhozhi Zhanburchina . Then he studied at the School of the Kazakh Border Commission . Ibrahim Altynsarin scientist in the field of pedagogy , ethnography and folklore . He was the creator of Kazakhstan in primary and vocational schools. Thanks to his efforts have been opened in the province female , handicraft , agricultural college. In 1879, he was appointed inspector of schools Turgay region . He wrote textbooks , " Kyrgyz reader" , " Quick Start Guide to Learning Kyrgyz Russian language " , published excerpts from the Kazakh epic " Koblandy - warrior ", " Janibek - warrior " , the materials on the history of " Kipchak Seitkulov ", " Baiul " and others. The ethnography in the " Notes" Orenburg branch of the Russian Geographical Society, he published an article, " Essay on the customs in courtship and marriage among the Kirghiz authorities Orenburg " , "Essay of customs at the funeral and memorial service at the Kyrgyz Ministry of Orenburg ." The path to progress his people he had seen in education .
In the second half of the XIX century, continued to develop folklore . Its themes were historical events , heroic personality , generic relationships, love . Received national recognition such as akyns Shozhe , Shortanbay , Suyunbai , Zhambyl , Sarah and others.
Along with the development of folklore developed and written Kazakh literature . It was an outstanding representative of Abai Kunanbayev (1845-1904 years ) . Abai was born in the mountains of Chingiz Semipalatinsk region in the family elders kind Tobykty . Initial education at home and then in the madrassas. He was an expert on customs and traditions of Kazakh people. Abay has combined folklore , poetry and eastern Russian , European classical literature. In 1886, he wrote the poem "Summer" and the following years of his life were in poetic creativity. He translated into Kazakh works of M. Lermontov , Pushkin . Abaya is called the "face of the Kazakh people ." The most fully his philosophical views are reflected in a prose work " Gakliya " where as aphorisms, proverbs , philosophical miniatures represented the quintessence of the challenges and achievements of the Kazakh people .
In the period under review in Kazakhstan published the newspaper " Vedomosti Akmola oblast ", " Kyrgyz newspaper ", " Orenburg leaf" and others. April 28, 1870 published the first issue of " ualayaty Turkestan " in Kazakh and Uzbek languages .
Developed the art of music . General recognition of folk composers Kurmangazi Sagyrbayev , Dauletkerey Shigaev , Tattimbet Kazangap , Yklas Dukenov , Birzhan - sal Kozhagulov , Zhayau Musa Bayzhanov .
In the period under study there were many works of eminent artists of Kazakhstan, its nature, the inhabitants. These are drawings and paintings of Taras Shevchenko , who served in the years 1847-1857 the link here : " Kazakhstan on the horse ", " Kazakh children - Baygush ", " Kazakh nomad camp on Kos - Aral " and others. A special place is occupied by paintings VV Vereshchagin , who in the late 60 's, early 70's and visited Turkestan Turkestan wrote his famous series of " Alatau Mountains ," " The mosque Khazret Yasavi " and others.
Developed decoration home decoration , home decoration , household items , clothing , and other articles of hides , leather, felt , metal, wood, stone , transforming them into works of art.
Thus, the socio- economic development of Kazakhstan in the second half of the XIX century was largely due to the final transformation of the edge of the colony of the Russian empire.
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