Features of new social policy during the post-crisis period
Inflation increase, threat of food security, decrease in a standard of living of the population is accompanied by increase of social tension in society that leads to political crises and power change in some countries.
The national economy of any country represents difficult economic, social, organizational, scientific and technological system. It possesses the cumulative economic potential consisting of natural and resource, production, labor, scientific and technical potentials. They interact among themselves and are realized in close interrelation and interdependence. In system of national economy there are the continuous structural, organizational changes caused by features of its economic system, the defined tendencies and regularities of development the Target orientation of regulation by these changes is carried out by acceptance and realization of uniform national strategy of development of economy at present and in the long term.
In the modern world there is an increase of social orientation of the economic policy pursued in developed and developing countries. For many countries strategic objectives in the sphere of economy become very similar: ensuring stable economic growth, creation of conditions for increase of employment of the population and unemployment reduction, control of growth rates of inflation, ensuring high competitiveness of production, achievement and saving of rather high standards of a standard of living and social guarantees. The increase in social investments - investments in the person, on his education and health maintenance is thus provided first of all.
In the conditions of distribution of idea of construction "the states of general prosperity" appear various theories on justification and judgment of global social systems and the corresponding models of social and economic development. Apparently, it isn't casual in the last at years considerably interest to the theory of the social market economy which bases were formulated for the first time by the German economists in the mid-fifties increased. Idea of a combination of liberalism and the order embodied in activity of the state, theorists of social market economy used at justification of a course of economic development in the conditions of post-war Germany. This theory gained recognition in other developed European countries and occupied the niche in world economic science. In treatment of essence of social market economy there are the general justifications, recognizing that any economy by the nature and appointment social as production of products and services is carried out for satisfaction of public needs of people.
At the same time it is necessary to recognize lawful that emergence of the theory of social market economy by yavlyaetsyaestestvenny continuation of the neoclassical theory of a keynsianstvo and a neokeynsianstvo. The theory of social market economy is demanded at the present stage of world development when there is a need of definition for new conditions of the purposes of further social and economic development both developed, and developing countries on long-term prospect.
With distribution of the theory of social market economy there are questions, the concept "social" that means "public" and as the term "the socially fair" associates in this regard is how applicable to market economy. In such understanding many perceive social market economy. There are questions with extent of its state regulation, ensuring the vital interests of businessmen, hired workers and other segments of the population that guarantees stability in society. Achievement of high standards of level and quality of life in such countries as Sweden, Germany and the Netherlands confirm reality of such statement of a question and its decision.
By the beginning of the XXI century the whole set of national models of economy which represent a wide range of a combination of the market relations and state regulation, national business and social orientation, economic regularities and not economic factors was created. Allocation of the "American", "Scandinavian", "Japanese" and "German" national economies, and also other technologies of national economic systems is conventional. All this puts forward a scientific and practical problem - what model (models) of national economy is formed in the Commonwealth countries.
The social and economic orientation of formation and development of national economies of CIS countries defines their orientation to social market economy. However the general regularities in specific conditions of each country refract through an originality of regional features of development of national economy. Therefore on a question of formation of the general model of development of economy for all countries or application of ready model of any country hardly it is possible to answer unambiguously in the affirmative.
In long-term prospect in process of achievement of sustained economic growth on the basis of hi-tech innovative economy in many countries really there will be a possibility of creation of uniform model of social market economy with orientation to the general priorities. At this stage of social and economic development of CIS countries there is a formation of national models of social market economy which characterize features of the Russian, Kazakhstan, Belarusian, Uzbek models.
The majority of the countries of world economy are guided by creation of own models of social and economic development. In this regard a big variety the model of China on the basis of high rates of economic growth, export orientation of economy and carried out rigid social, in particular demographic policy in the conditions of a population surplus differs. The Chinese national model of economy is based on idea of a market socialism. The same model of a market socialism characterizes economy of Vietnam.
Formiruyarazlichnye of model of social market economy and their version, globalization causes to consider also the general regularities and the tendencies arising for groups of the same countries. In this regard emergence of idea about formation of the general model of economic development of the countries of the European union isn't casual. For many of them the same purposes and priorities of economic development are characteristic. The common strategic objectives and priorities in the sphere of economy and social life of society are defined in program documents of EU. For many years the Swedish model was conventional as a symbol of the most developed form of the state of general welfare in which economic efficiency and social justice are successfully combined, and it formed the basis for concept application about a so-called Swedish socialism. In social and economic policy main goals were allocated: full employment and alignment of the income that was reflected in the Swedish market model of work.
Long-term strategy of social and economic development of Kazakhstan provides creation of socially focused economy, formation of effective model of human development and achievement of the Kazakhstan national quality of life. Strategy is aimed at the solution of problems on providing the person with health, education and social security according to the international standards. This purpose is reflected in all long-term concepts and program projects of Kazakhstan with concrete parameters in each stage of their realization. It belongs and to Strategy of industrial and innovative development for 2010-2020, the economy aimed at modernizations and the solution of priority problems of new social policy of the republic.
Need of social modernization and realization of new social policy is emphasized in the Message of President Nursultan Nazarbayev to the people of Kazakhstan "Let's construct the future together! " on January 29, 2011. In it the special attention is paid to questions of social modernization of the country, the main aspects of new social policy education, health care, development of the languages, new strategy of employment housing and communal services modernization, qualitative drinking water, increase of the income - new quality of life are designated.
By estimates of the international experts and the Russian economists the most important and complex problem of social policy, especially in crisis conditions of economic recovery, population employment is. In the Message of the President need of development and acceptance of essentially new strategy of employment and new programs is emphasized. In them it is necessary to provide increase of efficiency of a labor market according to requirements of new economy on the basis of new generation of qualified personnel, providing, employment of a huge personnel reserve of economy - the self-busy population, updating of the maintenance of professional and technical education.
Social modernization and realization of new social policy of the country are possible in close interrelation and on the basis of ensuring modernization of economy. Economy updating on a new qualitative basis with application of the latest technologies, activization of the human capital as important resource of national wealth of society are the main factors of economic modernization in post-crisis conditions.
Economy modernization on the basis of diversification of production, innovative industrialization with the latest technology means revaluation of available and expected factors and resources. Transition to the innovative economy based on knowledge, creative activity and intelligence requires formation and development of the competitive human capital demanded on internal and external labor markets. Creation of own human capital in each country as foreign practice shows, is equitable to its national economic interests. Measures for ensuring its realization should be considered as long-term strategy.
In this regard the uniting and regulating role of the state, state ownership increases in the society, being expressed in its increasing impact on various spheres of its activity, on all set public, including the economic relations. On the practical level, uniting zero state ownership it is caused by performance of the public functions promoting formation and realization of the common economic interests by it, defining activity not only state conditions as that, but also society, business, regional economy. Thereby the state directs process of increase of a maturity of national economic system, development of forms of implementation of the fundamental law of the relations of the property, being expressed in continuous, steady reproduction of unity and objectively caused is inconsistent interrelations of process of assignment and alienation at more and more qualitative level of subject and object forms of manifestation.
The role of social functions of the state considerably increases in conditions of financial and economic crisis when the state, using state ownership, pursues active address policy on maintenance of socially dependent segments of the population by implementation of programs on fight against unemployment, increases of the size of compensation, providing the state family support, development of system of social services, increases of the state pensions, grants and other guarantees of social protection.
Considering the different directions of use of state ownership, its role in social and economic development of society, it isn't difficult to reveal both a wide range of its functions, and features of hierarchy of these functions in the modern conditions, being characterized transformational transformations of domestic economy. The priority directions of use of state ownership became: participation in anti-recessionary actions, realization of additional measures for strengthening of social orientation of economy, restructuring and to transfer of economy to an innovative way of development and ensuring primary growth of priority branches, balance of production and consumption, supply and demand, income and expenses, interests of various links and managing levels, and also development of scientific and social spheres, solution of problems of environmental protection.
As the main source of development of the social sphere there is the state budget, in expenses of the budget features of the Kazakhstan economy have to be considered, a condition of which effective growth is not only advancing development of the knowledge-intensive and high-tech industries, but also branches promoting reproduction of the human capital, and in particular health care and education. Now the expenses for education which have made in 2010 of 3,5% for gross domestic product, remain at rather low level which isn't providing a competitive level of development of human potential.
Expenses of the state budget on education in gross domestic product of Kazakhstan for 2003-2010, in %
In 2010 the State program of reforming of health care of RK for 2011-2015 of "Salauatta Kazakstan" which main objective is improvement of health of citizens of Kazakhstan is accepted and formation of competitive health system for ensuring sustainable social and demographic development of the countries Besides, is planned improvement of the organization, management and financing of medical care in Uniform national health system; improvement of medical, pharmaceutical education; development and introduction of innovative technologies in medicine, increase of availability and quality of medicines for the population. For implementation of the state program is planned to allocate from the state budget for 2011-2015: 449,3 billion тг.
Expenses of the budget on the social block which is switching on social payments, education, health care, culture and sports in 2010 in a total amount of the budget were made by 9,4% of gross domestic product. The D developed countries the share of expenses on social needs makes more than 30% from gross domestic product. Among them most of all means it is spent for provision of pensions - on the average 42% from the general social expenses, the second-large item of expenditure - health care - 26,2%, further, social security of the unemployed - 8,1%, social security on disability and disability - 8%, the help to families and children - 7,3%, etc.
Share of expenses state. the budget on health care in gross domestic product of Kazakhstan for 2003-2010.
Among the countries with the maximum state participation in system of social protection it should be noted France, Italy, Belgium, Germany Austria, Japan. The minimum participation of the state, transfer of the majority of instruments of social protection to the private market is widespread in a number of the countries of Latin America. In the majority of the countries – the USA, Great Britain, Argentina, Holland, Denmark, Sweden, Poland, Latvia – use the mixed system. As shows the international experiment, extent of participation of the state institutes influences such main indicators, as population coverage by social protection. At the initial stage of a transition period the state was compelled to deal with the current issues of social protection taking into account influence of new, unknown earlier economic factors: inflations, budgetary deficiency, decline in production, increase in a share of informal sector of economy. Despite the carried-out transformations, at present the system of social protection is characterized by complexity and insufficient systemacity of the legislation, addressing and transparency, low incentives to participation in system.
It should be noted that with development of the market relations the role of private business in a control system of social protection of the population as by means of employment of able-bodied part of the population and assistance needy it promotes decrease in social tension in society raises. It should be noted that participation of private business in development of system social the population are sewn up (by introduction of various social programs at the enterprises) is characteristic practically for all countries with market economy.
However excessive liberalization in management of the above-named public processes too doesn't yield positive results. Therefore, in our opinion, further development of the public relations in the sphere of work and social development has to be carried out by means of legal regulation and adequate public administration by activity of participants of a labor market, on condition of observance of their constitutional law on freedom of work, a choice of a kind of activity and a profession. Thus the effect gained from inclusion of any public relation or a kind of activity in structure of operated object, has to satisfy public requirements and interests, i.e. to bring, positive results.
Problems of social policy at the present stage of development are: first, increase of the income and extent of social protection of the population; in - the second, optimization of the social and labor relations; thirdly, every possible development of branches of the social sphere. Thus the maximum satisfaction of requirements of the population, every possible increase of welfare, quality of life of the population have to become criteria of social policy that in turn is a national priority of development of our country. In the republic new approaches to questions of social support and development of a manpower through introduction, including the international standards of social responsibility of business are applied. In particular, in world economic practice by the important tool connecting efforts of the state and the private sector in the solution of the general social tasks the state-private partnership (SPP) institute is. In many countries of GChP it is successfully applied to development of socially significant sectors: in health care and education which traditionally belong to the sphere of responsibility of the state. In world practice there are no uniform standards for GChP development. Its introduction in the concrete country can include some stages. And this process is constantly improved thanks to identification of various barriers and their elimination, and also by improvement, deepening and expansion of scopes of GChP. For example, in the countries of Europe only in the sphere of health care it is applied to ten different type of the GChP models. So, in Great Britain in projects of health care the Contents and Management model is applied. In France in the construction project of the state hospital (BailEmphytheotiqueHospitalier) worth 6 billion. euro applied the Design Construction Service model where to the private sector the right to design, construction and hospital service, and also on performance of commercial activity within project structure was transferred. Cases when in GChP-projects on health care the rights to rendering some clinical services are transferred to the private sector, it is rather an exception, than the rule. And available examples assume only partial rendering such services to the population. In Madrid is a care of patients, in Romania where business participated in Elias hospital construction projects in Budapest and the medical center Uniгеа, the private sector renders services in x-ray inspection of patients, and also in customer acquisition - the organizations for medical care. Most often in the international practice in GChP-projects rendering medical services traditionally remains behind the state.
In health care projects the state bears responsibility before the population for quality of rendering medical services, providing to the private sector the right to object maintenance, and also possibility of obtaining the income from implementation of some types of commercial activity. For example, parking construction in the territory of clinic for his clients, catering services, laundries and other kinds of activity which aren't medical services in treatment of patients. The international practice shows that business willingly occupies the niches provided to it by the state in social infrastructure. However in Kazakhstan there is a number of the unresolved legislative questions interfering application of the similar western scheme of cooperation of the state and business. Further development of GChP in the social sphere of RK requires expansion of spheres of its application by improvement of existing contracts of trust management, property hiring (rent) on the basis of contracts existing in the international practice on management and the contents, operation and the contents, expansion of models of concession, and also introduction of a new type of the contract on construction and operation which are used in the world for implementation of projects in the social sphere.
Development of the social state, ensuring equality and justice in the solution of specific social objectives has to become the purpose of development of society in Kazakhstan. Human development is primary purpose in relation to economic development. It has to find reflection in strategic plans and the tasks solved by all levels of the power. In it basis of prosperity of society and strengthening of its international positions.
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