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10 November

10 November 1940

In 1940 new Kazakh alphabet based on the Russian script was introduced


Kazakh Cyrillic alphabet is the alphabet, used in Kazakhstan and Mongolia. This alphabet, worked up by S.A. Amanzholov and adopted in 1940, consists of 42 letters: they are 33 letters from Russian alphabet and 9 specific letters of Kazakh language, such as Ә, Ғ, K, Ң, Ө, Ұ (Ӯӯ was used instead of this letter until 1957), Y, h, I. In the beginning Kazakh letters were located after the letters from Russian alphabet, but then they were carried to the places after Russian letters, similar in phonation.

The following letters: В, Ё (since 1957), ф, Х, h, Ц, Ч, Щ, Ъ, Ь, Э, are not used in aboriginal Kazakh words. The letters: Ё, Ц, Ч, Щ, Ъ, Ь, Э, are used only in words, loaned from or through Russian language, which are written in accordance to the rules of Russian spelling. The letter X is pronounced like Қ in colloquial speech. The letter h is used only in Arabic and Persian loanwords, and it is often pronounced like voiceless X. The letter E is pronounced like diphthong in absolute word’s beginning. The letter Э is always pronounced like E letter. The letter O may be pronounced like diphthong in absolute word’s beginning. The letters I and Ы designate sounds, similar to the Old Slavonic ones (before the drop of reduced sounds) Ь and Ъ. The letter И designates pseudo-diphthongs ЫЙ, ІЙ. The letter У designates asyllabic sound, similar to the Russian Ӯ, as well as pseudo-diphthongs ҰУ, ҮУ, ЫУ, ІУ. 

10 November 1921

In 1921 the Kazakh Executive Committee adopted the Decree for Action against Cattle Rustling

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