I've tried to write on this topic several times before, but, for good reasons, I could not, and missed the time. Honestly, during the search for documents in China, we paid more attention to the search for documents on the political and trade relations between Qing and Abylay Khan. Perhaps this is a positive trend in the completion of our history. And is there information about Alash Horde in China? Every Kazakh wants to know the answer to this important question. For example, in newspapers and magazines there is information about the government of Alash Horde, about China, about the democratic revolution in China and Sun Yat Sen (孙中山) (I have several pages on my hands).
In 1912, the Chinese Nazis established a democratic government. But the revolution was not realized until the end, China was divided between the military rulers of the Duzuns (Shonzhar). One of them - Yuan Shikai created the military government of the northern rulers. The Kuomintang government was formed in Nanjing in 1928.
Eastern Turkestan directly obeyed the military rulers of Beijing. In order to weaken the influence of external Mongolia on East Turkestan, Yang Jining subdued the Altai Territory in Xinjiang, which for 129 years was directly subordinate to the central government. Previously, these events were regarded in this way. In fact, the main reason was different: since the Altai Territory stood apart, the Alash Horde began to seek political contacts with the Kazakhs of the Altai Territory. Since the Ile-Tarbagatay region belonged to the Kuldzhinka province, they looked at the Yang Jining government with arrogance. About this political crisis, Yang Jining (杨 增 新) reported to the authorities in Beijing. This is the beginning of the most important information about Alash Horde.
East Turkestan and the idea of the Alash movement
Through the consular officers of Lenin and Stalin in Urumqi and Tacheng, Yang Jining received telegrams, without delaying transferred them to the central authorities, and wrote reports. In his reports, he pointed to the political crisis in the border area of Xinjiang and the existence of illegal governments in Russia (for example, the Alash Horde government), their activities and their planned activities in China, and also requested special assistance from the center in case of illegal entry of armed troops and was interested in what kind of operative political decision it was necessary to take, for example, whether it was necessary to disarm them when crossing the border or was it necessary to provide any social assistance?
All governments created in the territory of Tsarist Russia by Yang Jining were perceived as illegal governments, and their relationship with the population of Xinjiang was considered a violation of the border or an illegal act. The secret agents of Yang Jining sent timely information to Beijing about the ties of the border Kazakhs with the illegal government of Alash Horde, about the civil war in Russia, and took orders from the central government. One of these documents is on my hands. To weaken the influence exerted by the white-red confrontation and Alash Horde, which was perceived by Yang Jining as an illegal government, he separated the "Altai Territory" from the central authority of Beijing and immediately subordinated it to Xinjiang. Thus, the Kazakhs of the Altai Territory, who for 129 years were in the central subordination, were subordinated to Xinjiang. Among the information sent by Yang Jining to Beijing and the Xinjiang authorities of the Military Government of the northern rulers, it is quite possible that unique information about the Alash Horde has been preserved.
The following data is from press. In the printed publications of the Military Government of the northern rulers, information on the events of pre-revolutionary Russia and the impact they had on the border region of Xinjiang, as well as on the governments created in Russia (China considered them an illegal government), may well be found. This can be said, since after the events of 1916 more than 300 thousand people passed from Russia to the territory of China, breaking the border. Since that moment, Chinese nationalists have begun to raise the problems of border areas with Russia in newspapers and magazines.
By Eldes SULEIMEN
Translated by Raushan MAKHMETZHANOVA
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