Official documents of the XVIII century (Fund №1 the State archive of Omsk region) on the relationship of the Kazakh Khanate with the Russian Empire in the majority were presented by correspondence of sultans and khans with the administration of governor-general. There were separate letters of elders. The amount of documentary information about specific batyrs could be counted on fingers.
Tleumbet batyr - batyr of Basentiin (1720-1795). An active participant in the liberation struggle with Dzhungars (Kalmyks) in 1740-50. In 1750-60 in conjunction with other tribes of Basentiin, he had his winter in the foothills of Kalmak-kyrgan. Tleumbet Mountain (near the winter) retained its name to this day. In 1770 the whole tribe of batyr Basentiin-Otep finally moved to their relatives, near the outpost of Koryakov (now Pavlodar). Since that time batyr enters the official chronicle of the archival documents.
Tleumbet Mountain. Map of 1878
According to archive documents, you can get an idea about the active political activity of Tleumbet-batyr. As foreman of Basentiin volost, he was one of the most important and authoritative representative of the tribal nobility of the Middle Juz. He was involved in disputes, maintained constant contact with sultan Sultanmamet and his children; he went on controversial issues to khan Uali, son of Abylai khan.
At the same time, fully corresponding to his rank of Batyr, Tleumbet differed decisive and courageous character, responding to violence with violence. Very typical episode in this regard was when he captured Russian Cossacks in response to the unjust actions of the Russian authority.
To Highborn lord,
lieutenant-general of the Siberian Dragoons,
boss and cavalry Nicholas Gavrilovich Ogarev
from second major and the Commandant Shakhov
By the order of your Excellency, meeting a courier, I went to Koryakov Farpost. From where I called Saltamamet, Iman - sultans and foreman Tleumbet batyr, and sent a letter to Sultamamet.
But they did not come to me through two days, and completely abandoned to go. Captured before the two Chernoretsk Cossacks Borodikhins and third musketeer field battalion driver, before the receipt of your Excellency's command, per night in Koryakov Farpost on letter sent by me to the above said elders Saltamamet-Sultan son of Karachi and Tleumbet, including thirty two Kyrgyzs, were taken out, and they were taken by ensign Kamayev.
Of these, he sent the driver to the battalion and Cossacks detained in custody, and on my arrival they were questioned how Kirgis’ captured them. Those who showed their commanding from Chernoretsk to Chernoyarsk station in a convoy with the following to Koryakov guard Varovin with exiled convicts, out of it, by themselves, without dismissal from the team, dared to go to Koryakov for rye flour we bought before. Reached ten miles from the station on the road to the next in the same Farpost of third musketeer battalion command, at their request, but who exactly they did not know, but with the passing took to wagon seriously ill cabby. They went from them hastily, and drove not more than three miles away from half lighthouse, where the accident apparently was on malice to capture in a gentle place, and that in which they were hardly seen, fourteen Kirgis at Tleumbet, ran captured, and, no matter to their requests, captured the horses, took over the Irtysh river. And although one of them, Cossack Peter Borodikhin prevented, and was hit by one of Kirgis with a spear in his hand, and there was no wound on the occasion of Cossack care. However, as if, it was the coat sleeve he broke out in two places, and Tleumbet saw that, but he did not stop. Well, the two Cossacks lived near Tleumbet and the driver with Kirgis I did not know who he was. Finally, gathering them all in one place, they were taken to Koryakov.
A complaint about the seizure we heard that it followed through Kirgis detention in the case of the Kazan Tatar Usmanov and pledged amanats. But besides Tleumbet allegedly said, if Kirgis would not order to release him there would be one more seizure, where it would be possible and at any time. (And these two Cossacks sent to the administration of their service in their place until the resolution of your Excellency). I made a report about it to Your Excellency.
And moreover, I dared to explain: the claim of elder Tleumbet in the case of Tatar Usmanov was unfair, because detained Kirgizs and with him another amanat, both were relatives of Tleumbet, really assured that Usmanov in villages of Tleumbet was robbed and detained by them, and where finally he was killed. Once when I went on my affairs it appeared on March 2, 1786 the former commander in Chernoyarsk station ensign Basarev reported to border control lord, colonel and cavalier Geytseg denounced that estate manager of Usmanov Kazan Tatar Sharyp, but who exactly I did not know, on the proof of living with Kirgis Tashkent Muhamezi Huzyashamarov was killed by Tleumbet with Kirgis Tuman in his volost. And the goods, such as crimson and woolen cloth they truly kept in the hands. However, did they report to Your Excellency, lord colonel and cavalier Geytseg that in the journal report it was not found.
In my distance in similarity of your Excellency caution is observed. But the capture of the Cossacks and the coachman followed only by themselves and the commander in Chernoyarsk Demidov, who in this case was not looking for the sentries, and that without his permission made omission of living and the first thing to me was not true. However, I ordered already to find the perpetrators, and commanded to inflict, expect resolution. According to my observation it was clear that this return to captured prisoners followed by constraint.
In the argument that according to my report to Your Excellency that Kirgis ferried herds of horses across the river Irtysh, I was sure on the report of them, but now Kirgis kicked out of the living Sultamomet-Sultan and five thousand horses, which were ordered to cross the river, but there was clear missed some secretive way, for the bailiff to the herd was not at all known, that those horses were grazing next to the lighthouse of Presnyi not in my range.
Disguised as Sultamomet went from Koryakov steppe Kirgis, as usual was already noticed that they were not only simple elders, but the sultans during the free passage of a delicacy made requisitions of horses. And because Sultamamet feared that his horses did not stay here, gave our prisoners. Have accepted the requests of Sultamomet, delivered his son Karachi, two amanats from Koryakov were released. And this Kirgiz on the case of Tatar Usmanov and with him the other amanat of Tleumbet detained and kept under the supervision of the guards.
Second Major and Commander Fyodor Shakhov. April 25, 1788.
Commandant of Yamishev fortress second Major F. Shakhov report to Siberian Corps Commander Lieutenant-General N. G. Ogarev about the causes of the conflict of Tleumbet batyr with the merchant Usmanov, about the circumstance of capture and return of seized by Tleumbet batyr three Russian military.
Loyalty of Tleumbet batyr to the Russian authorities never passed into absolute submission. He always maintained his honor and dignity. Interesting resolution against him by Russian officials in 1788: "Write Iman Soltan ... that Tleumbet batyr was known by his loyalty and goodwill ... care for himself better."
Of great interest are also materials on participation of Tleumbet batyr in the development of Kazakh-Russian trade. He gives amanats, merchants to Russia. Having owned a large number of cattle, Tleumbet batyr naturally faced with the question of its sales, and therefore often personally visited the Omsk market and sent his son there.
It should also be noted the important role of Tleumbet batyr in the return of Kazakh lands on the right bank of the Irtysh. As you know, after the construction of the fortified castles line by the Russian government access to the old nomadic was significantly impeded. However, the persistent struggle of the Kazakh people for the return of the land carried out by the annual moving of cattle to the right bank of the Irtysh and the relocation of the Kazakh population, as well as active work of elders and sultans as Tleumbet Batyr (Basentiin), Bokty Batyr (Kanzhygaly), Kunai-Batyr (Kypshak), Zhanuzak-biy (Uak), Kenzhebai-Zharlyk (Zharylgap), biy (Karakesek), Sultanmamet Sultan, Dauletkerey Sultan, Buldyryk Sultan, Dosan-Sultan, Torebatyr Sultan, Tauke Sultan, Shanshar Sultan, Urus-Sultan, Iman Sultan led to the fact that the Russian government was forced, in part, to recognize the right to the land of the Kazakhs.
Shezhire and descendants.
Shezhire of Tleumbet Batyr: Tleumbet - Babatay - Otep - Bessen - Baimbet - Kokshekoz (Akmaydan) - Basentiin - Argyn. Tleumbet had three sons: Zhanteke, Sarke and Kopey. According to 1819-33, his son Sarke – a sergeant of Baimbet - Basentiin volost.
Nominal list of 1842:
Sarke son of Tleumet, biy of 67 years. Fair and honest. Decent condition. Baimbet - Basentiin volost, tribe of besens, utep department. He was awarded the rank of petty officers. Under the court he did not happen. Summer migrations on the tract Shuyruk 160 miles from the order to the northeast, winter on the tract Oybay, Meadow Irtysh, near the outpost of Koryakov, 186 miles east of the order (Bayan-Aul)
Sarke Tileumbet in 1848-1857 was biy in department of Otep - Bessen.
According to the MKZ (1889) - Tayanyshpay Sarkin - the head of the village in Altybaev volost, on the tract Karaterek 11 miles from Pavlodar.
In 1901-1910, biy of the village №7 in Altybaev volost - nephew of Tayanyshpay: Dyusembay Yedilbayev, through line Yedilbay - Tekei - Salmenbet (brother of Tleumbet Batyr). Zhanteke, according to the manuscript, had two children - Zhussup and Yskak, from Zhussup – Smagul, from Yskak - Ajdar and Nickan. Tayanyshpay’s children are not specified. There is no information about Kopey. Unfortunately, today's direct descendants of Batyr could not find.
Tomb of Tleumbet. Map 1878
Tomb of Tleumbet.
In 2-verst maps of 1878, managed to find a place of batyr’s grave, about 12 km from Pavlodar on the left bank of the river Irtysh. These coincide with the statistical data of wintering location Tayanyshpay Sarkin. The current state of the burial could not be examined in connection with the onset of winter. It is planned in the summer to install a commemorative plate on the burial place of the famous Batyr, whose activity and life is reflected in the archival documents of the neighboring state.
By Dauren AYASHINOV
Historian and ethnographer
Translated by Raushan MAKHMETZHANOVA
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Use of materials for publication, commercial use, or distribution requires written or oral permission from the Board of Editors or the author. Hyperlink to National Digital History portal is necessary. All rights reserved by the Law RK “On author’s rights and related rights”. To request authorization email to email@example.com or call to (7172) 79 82 06 (ext.111)