According to the decree of the Cabinet of Ministers of Kazakh SSR No. 496 of August 28, 1991 and the decree of the Presidium of KazSSR No. 73 of September 6, 1991, the Institute of archaeology was established, which was named after the outstanding archaeologist, historian, ethnographer, orientalist, philologist, academician A. Kh. Margulan. As independent scientific social science of Kazakhstan, archaeology was formed in the system, established in the Academy of Sciences of Kazakh SSR in 1946. The first head of the Department of Archaeology became A.Kh.Margulan. Since 1953 the Department was headed by C. A. Akishev. The establishment of the independent Institute in 1991 was prepared due to the development of archaeological and historical science in Kazakhstan, which is connected with the study of the origins of people, its remote past, cultural heritage as part of world civilization. The Institute is the focal point of archaeological research in the country. Outstanding Russian Orientalists and Historians V.V. Bartold, V.V. Radlov, P.I.Lerkh as well as representatives of the progressive Russian intelligentsia worked at the early period of the development of archaeology of Kazakhstan. The Soviet archaeologists M.E.Masson, S.P.Tolstoy, A.N.Bernshtam, M.P.Gryaznov, S.S.Tschernikova, P.I.Boriskovski, L.R.Kyzlasova, V.M.Masson played a great role in the formation of the archaeological science of the Kazakh Republik. The period that covers the pre-war time and ends at the end of the 1960s, was characterized by the large expeditions, works in an area of Virgin Lands, bronze age burial grounds in central Kazakhstan, Sak burial ground Besshatyr in Zhetysu. At this time A.Kh.Margulan, A.G. Maximova, E.I. Ageeva, G.I. Pacevitsch, T.N. Senigova, K.A. Akishev, M.K. Kadyrbaev, Kh. A. Alpysbaev, G.A., Kushaev F. Kh. Arslanov, V.I. Sadomskov, A.M. Orazbayev were carrying out research. In the second half of 60 s, in the 70-s – 80-s. appeared a new generation of archaeologists: B. N. Nurmukhanbetov, L. B. Yerzakovich and S. K.M. Baipakov, S. M. Akhynzhanov, M. S. Mershiev, S.Zh. Zholdasbaev, V.A.Groshev, Zh.K. Taimagambetov, Zh.K. Kurmankulov, A.K. Akishev, S.S. Samashev, E.A. Smagulov, T.V. Savelyeva, B.A. Bajtanaev, A.S. Ermolaeva, U.A. Motov, A.A.Makarov, T. N.Nurumov; R. Z. Burnasheva, V.N. Nastitsch. At the Institute organizational security research is regulated by the Academic Council and Council of young scientists functions here. Institute of Archaeology actively supports and promotes international relations, which is reflected in the joint international programmes and projects, in organizing international expeditions, exhibitions, joint publications of scientific papers, participation in international symposiums, and conferences. Every year during the archaeological research of new monuments appear new materials carrying additional information. Acquisition and expansion of information fields is a necessary and indispensable element in the process of archaeological researches. Kazakhstan archeology has a significant source base that enables to develop and refine a typology and classification of monuments, to allocate new archaeological culture, economic-cultural types, historical and cultural commonalities, to solve problems of chronology and periodization. Archaeological sources are the most important basis for the restoration of historical paintings of ancient and medieval history of Kazakhstan within the broad framework of the Paleolithic age to the late Middle Ages. From 1991 till 2011 the Institute participated in the development of programmes for basic research that determined the priority directions of the development of modern archaeological science of Kazakhstan. As a result of complex investigations, identifying new monuments was developed a broad course of problems contributing to the re-establishment of a particular historical reality in the socio-economic, political, ethno-cultural aspects. From 2012 the Institute runs priority grant competition "The country's intellectual potential" (20 themes). Research is carried out on the target program of the Interdisciplinary Council of social -humanitarian institutions "Scientific Kazyna": “Archaeological study on ancient and medieval History of Kazakhstan». As well as on the target program "Archaeological studies of objects of historical and cultural heritage" (Administrator of the program: Committee on Culture of the Ministry of Culture and Information of Kazakhstan). One of the major directions in the scientific-organizational activity of the Institute is participation in realization of the State program "Cultural heritage" (2004-2013) . The problem of conservation of cultural heritage is of great value for the modern society. The material block of cultural heritage represents material memory of people. In this connection, acceptance of the State program "Cultural heritage" is significant for among the countries of CIS only Kazakhstan has given to the problem of conservation of cultural heritage the state status. In this case it proves the civilized attitude to the past. According to this program, archaeological objects were selected in accordance with their importance and availability of the certain reserve in the previous reserves. As a matter of fact, they are the standard monuments having the historical and cultural importance, being peculiar carriers of genetic memory of people, as well as being nominated in the list of future nominants of World Cultural Heritage. Scientifically-organizational activity of Research on the Program is conducted in a complex way, excavation works are followed with the actions, connected with the preparation of the project, then preservation and restoration of the excavations and their museefication. The problem of conservation and studying of monuments of archaeology is impossible without the organization of complete system of measures on their protection and use. In this connection, the Institute of Archaeology has suggested introducing the program of the improvement of arrangements on finding archaeological monuments, which aims to carry out the archeological examination anticipating processes of construction and economic activities. For years of the activity Institute of Archaeology named after A.Kh.Margulan has not only reached significant results, has also developed new directions, which are successfully realized, as well as the conceptual basis for further archaeological researches in Kazakhstan.