The new system of natural resources management
All the developed countries increase the investments in to the alternative and “green” energy technologies. As early as by 2050 its implementation will allow generating up to 50% of all energy consumption
“All the developed countries increase the investments
in to the alternative and “green” energy technologies. As early as by 2050
its implementation will allow generating up to 50% of all energy
“It is evident that the epoch of hydrocarbon economy
is gradually coming to its end. The new era, wherein the human activity will be
based on not only and not so much on the oil and gas, as on renewable energy
sources, comes around”.
search of alternative forms of energy resources in recent decades has become
one of the crucial tasks of many countries governments. At the present times
more than 15 mln tons of synthetic petrol and diesel fuel, which is obtained on
basis of coal or natural gas, is produced worldwide, the construction
projects of the whole series of factories in appropriate field are prepared.
Annually the huge amount are spent for the research and development in this
area, except that all these events are carried out within the frames of
government programs in range of countries.
is conditioned by the variety of causes, the most challenging among which are
the necessity of energy preparedness maintenance, notable depletion of the
world supply of oil and appreciation of energy carriers, as well as the
solution of environmental issues. In recent times the economic aspect becomes
increasingly ponderable. In particular, according to the foreign experts’ data,
the capital expenditures for the oil refineries modernization for the petroleum
refinery products quality adjustment to the level of ecological standards are
commensurable with the creation of new capacities on alternative fuels
the free market prices and oil products, which are the main engines of
technical progress, beast off. The oil extraction in Kazakhstan, to which the
deep bedding, high concentration of mercaptans, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur oxides
are inherent, requires the solution of numerous problems, associated with the
additional charges on extraction, preparation (purifying), ecological problems,
tendency of permanent ramp up of oil extraction in various regions of the world
and the use of its considerable part as energy sources leads to the change of
ecological situation almost in all countries, what today becomes the persuasive
threat for a humanity.
petroleum transport fuels are traditional. Its real alternative may serve:
liquefied petroleum gas (propane-butane);
liquefied natural gas (methane);
spirits and oils, extracted from the vegetable feed, including as a result of
synthetic liquid fuels out of coal, schist and gas.
international scientific community has reached a verdict that the carbon
dioxide buildup which is sequent of carbon fuel (oil, gas, coal) firing is the
primary reason of a greenhouse effect appearance.
connection with the adoption of State program on the accelerated industrial
innovative development of Republic of Kazakhstan for 2010-2014 the
fundamentally new tasks are set before the public investment policy. In
the current context it should provide the capital cross-flow in favor of the
non-resource economy sectors development and in particular the high-tech and
science absorbing industries.
nonconventional power resources are one of such production. The feasibility of
several-sorted nonconventional power sources using exists today in Kazakhstan.
Among these are: hydro energy, solar energy, wind power, biomass energy.
data on the potential of renewable energy resources of Kazakhstan per capita
are given in table 1.
1 – The potential of renewable energy resources of Kazakhstan
The large HPP more than 10 milliwatt
The small HPP, less 10 milliwatt
Technically feasible potential, bln. kWh
megawatt/3,3-3,6 bln. kWh
Theoretically feasible potential, bln. kWh
Note – The table is compiled based on the source:
Mussabekov К. The economic feasibility of the wind stations distribution/ The
development problems of industrial innovative economy in the region. The
materials of international research and training conference. – Shymkent. –
2009. – P.11-15.
Kazakhstan water resources potential is estimated at 170 bln kWh per year, in
the wind power engineering the potential of 1,8 bln. kWh mat be implemented,
potentially-enable generation of solar energy is estimated at 2,5 bln. kWh per
year. The possible reserves of these resources use in Kazakhstan are estimated
at 12 bln USD. According to the experts’ opinion the resources of nonrenewable
natural resources in the republic can be depleted during the short period –
from 50 years on oil to 85 years –on the natural gas. Up to date the use of
renewable resources in the economy of Kazakhstan composes a mere 0,02%. By 2024
it is planned to boost the level of alternative energy sources use up to 10%.
distinct from the traditional large-scale hydropower engineering with its
apparent disadvantages so called “small energy” with the objects capacity not
exceeding 10 megawatt, is relegated to the promising unconventional
technologies of renewable energy receiving. The hydroelectric power plants on
headwaters are able in a great measure solve a problem of diversification of
energy supply sources at the growing demand, especially in the distant and
hard-to-reach places for the population habitation.
pilot projects on the use of nonconventional energy types in Kazakhstan are
already started. Thus in the end of 2006 the Ministry of energy and mineral
resources has suggested that perhaps by 2030 46 wind farms with the total
capacity of more than 1 mln kW will be constructed in the republic.
construction of a pilot wind farm with a capacity of 5 megawatt in the region
of Junggar gates- between the arms of Dzungarian Alatau and Tarbagatai, wherein
the average daily wind speed composes 15-20 meters per second, is started.
whole about 11000 wind-power units with a capacity of 100-250 kW is possible to
distribute in this region, the generation of one installation per annum will
approximately compose 600 thousand kW, and the whole complex – more than 6 bln.
kW. It is important to note that the great part of electric power will be
generated in the cold season, i.e., when the demand for it grows up. The
implementation of this project will require the expenses with account of world
wide average prices for1 kW of installed capacity of 1300-1400 USD in the
amount of 3850 mln USD. But at the present time primarily for lack of both the
financial opportunities and experience in the massive assimilation of wind
energy resources the gradual expansion of wind energy capacities is more
widespread development of the wind-power stations in the republic as yet
refrains by the cheap rates on electric energy, relative cheapness of coal and
high level of required investments per unit of end product. Meanwhile the
potential of only wind energy of Kazakhstan is estimated at 1820 bln kWh per
potential of Kazakhstan’s wind energy manifold exceeds the present-day electric
energy consumption. By experts’ estimations, the economically feasible for use
potential of wind power at the present time is estimated at more than 3 bln kWh
per year. Kazakhstan is a worldwide leader on the quantity of accessible wind
energy per capita. Its potential in 30-40 times bigger than the electric power,
generated in the country.
possesses the significant helio resources. The overall annual potential of
solar energy within Kazakhstan territory is estimated at 340 bln tons of fuel
oil equivalent at the potential level of energy flow at 1 trillion kWh. Thanks
to geographic location of republic and favorable climatic conditions the solar
energy resources are sustainable and allowable to technical application. The
number of solar hours composes 2200-3000 hours per year, and the solar
radiation energy is 1300-1800 kW for sq.m. per year, what makes possible the
panel design of solar batteries in rural localities, in particular portable
systems of photo electric sources. The technologies on basis of solar water
heaters in certain selected areas, which do not have access to the gas piping,
possess the good prospects.
potentially enable generation on basis of photoconverters at the solar
power stations total capacity of 2500 megawatt composes 2,5 bln kWh per
year. The existing market in Kazakhstan is capable of acceptance of up to 40
000 small portable batteries on photocells, each with a capacity of 20W (on
basis of a five-year period). Such batteries will provide the demand for
electricity for approximately 200000 families of nomadic stockbreeders. The
initial cost of the photovoltaic power systems at the present time is too high
for the rural population. However it must be taken into consideration that 1
lumen-hour of photoelectricity costs on 30% less than the costs of petroleum lamps
most preferable location areas of solar power stations in Kazakhstan are in the
Aral Sea region, Kyzylordinskaya and Shymkentskaya oblasts. Now the solar
energy is used basically in rural localities for the heat generation by way of
primitive water heaters. Вреспубликеосвоено The production of
solar collecting panels is mastered in republic (in Shymkent and Almaty). The
first in the country combined solar-wind system is built near Bakanas village,
the center of Balkhashskiy district of Almatinskaya oblast.
technologies of a solar energy use in the RK have a promising outlook. Its
implementation to the existing electric power system of the country will
prevent the growth of production and transportation costs on the conventional
fuels, provide the environmentally friendly way of energy generation and will
provide the access to energy for the remote regions residents.
desalination of water byway of solar radiance is one more upcoming trends of a
Sun energy use. The relevance of its development in Kazakhstan is conditioned
by the reason that in many regions of a country there is a lack of pure water,
what significantly makes difficult to use it. But there are reserves of salty
water in many of them. The desalination plants as he other solar engineering
has a big useful life.
big opportunities in the proper power supply of agricultural enterprises and
savings of fuel and power resources are in the use of agricultural production
and vegetal biomass wastes energy. In the agricultural industry it is possible
to accept the plant bypass, unsuitable for use for the intended purpose or
which did not find other economic use as the heat sources.
bioenergetic resources are divided into two categories:
traditional biomass (basically the timber and straw);
the new biomass– animal, agricultural industry waste, solid domestic waste and
waste water mud.
the process of biomass processing in to the ethanol the by-products are formed,
primarily- flushing water and distillation residue. The last one is a serious
source of ecologic environment contamination. The technologies permitting
in the process of these wastes purification to receive a mineral substance used
in chemical industry as well as apply them for the fertilizer production are of
all existing bioenergetic technologies the most perspective for the Republic of
Kazakhstan are the technologies, based on the anaerobic fermentation of organic
wastes of cattle breeding and municipal household wastes with subsequent biogas
transformation into the electricity and heat. The biogas is a fuel with the
calorific capacity of 20-25 mJ/m3, consisting of methane (30-75%) and carbon
dioxide, originates in consequence of methane digestion of various organic
nonconventional kinds of energy may be widely used in Kazakhstan upon the
condition of detailed legislation presence. At that the main objective of the
same wind power plant project for 5 megawatt will become the provision of legal
framework for reforms in this area. Taking into account the fact that the
conventional fuels are yet cheaper at value, in the context of ecology it is
necessary to create the more favorable conditions for nonconventional kinds of
the incitement of alternative energetics development the following measures can
redistribute the taxes, by which the enterprises are imposed, inflicting the
damage to environment, redirect to the support of renewable energy development;
establish the tax system, declining temporally, for the generation of
alternative energy; introduce the preferential tax treatment and customs rates
for the equipment, associated with the creation and use of alternative energy
elaborate the strategic programs of a top-priority implementation of alternative
bring in the practice of low percent credits arrangement for the acquisition by
the population of equipment for the alternative energy sources;
establish the amount of public reimbursement for the construction costs
on facilities of alternative energetics in the amount of 30% of capital
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