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Potential of industrial and innovative modernization of Kazakhstan



  2.1 . Preconditions and features of innovative and technological progress

  Studying of current trends of development of world economy and as models developed and developing countries, including the countries of "catching-up" and "overtaking" development shows that fast rates of economic growth are interconnected with high level of the innovative environment - the sciences, new technologies, the knowledge-intensive branches and the innovative companies. The world practice of the last decade, especially over the vanguard countries visually shows striking progress, investment break in the scientific, innovative sphere.

Hi-tech export of the USA by types of the equipment and the certain major countries, 2000-2007 (bln. dollars) [1]










Export volume, total … …









 By types of equipment:

Computers and office equipment … …









Consumer electronics









Communication equipment……………….









Electronic components…


















Industrial electronics









Electromedical equipment……………….


















Over the countries:




























South Korea……………….













































If to judge on a rating of the countries in world economic development in 2007 (pre-crisis) year on a number of structural indicators, a share of export of industrial goods in the total commodity exports made: Russia – 21%, the USA of-82%, Japan of-93%, China of-91%, Korea of-92%, the Czech Republic – 90%, Poland – 81%, Belarus – 60%. At the same time the share of high technologies in export of industrial goods on these, etc. to the countries looked as follows: Russia of-9%, USA-32, China-30, Korea-33, Japan-24, Czech Republic-13, Hungary of-29%.

As for intercountry comparisons on costs of technological innovations, from them in Russia 10% are allocated for research and development, Germany of-50%, Sweden of-65%, and in France - nearly 70%. Absolute costs of the countries of technological innovations at par in Russia in 2000 were on the average 3,5-5 times less than purchasing power of national currencies, than in Germany, by 2-2,5 times – than in Great Britain, by 2-2,5 times – than in France, by 4-4,5 times – than in China. Over the last 10 years China increased costs of research and development in a dollar equivalent more than 8 times, Russia – a little more than 2 times. [2] ] (Statistical data on research and development in Kazakhstan in years when the academic, former branch design institutes were in deep crisis and even in a condition of disintegration, in the majority are incorrect and incomparable even to CIS countries, Russia). According to forecasts of scientists and analysts, Russia in the foreseeable future doesn't become the supplier of new technologies to the world market. [3] ]

For a transitional economy of Russia and Kazakhstan structural crisis, especially in the industry, a leading link of industrialization and modernization is characteristic. In commodity structure of export and import to the industries of Russia and Kazakhstan import of cars and the equipment, vehicles in 2008 respectively made 52,8 and 90%; production of the chemical industry, % rubber-13,1 and 80. Especially big shocks for years of market reforms I underwent the easy and food industries. The output in light industry of Russia decreased by 16 times – from 11% in a total amount of industrial production to 0,7%, in and Kazakhstan - from 15%до 0,24%. [4] ] For the solution of problems of the general industrialization of branches and spheres which underwent degradation and deindustrialization in transitional the period, use a transfer of technologies. It is practice of all developing countries in the absence of the corresponding reserves of scientific and technical and innovative progress. But the transfer of technologies won't bring the country to a way of innovative development. Because efficiency of modern economy and its competitiveness as shows world experiment, depend first of all on its ability to generate and rationally to use scientific knowledge, to create high level innovative environments – the sciences, new technologies with an exit to release of innovative production. The tendency is confirmed by rapid growth of a contribution of innovations in a gain of gross domestic product of the developed countries. So, in the USA it increased from 31% in 1980 to 35,6% in 2007; in Japan – according to 30,6 to 42,5%; in EU – from 45,5% to 50%. Use of achievements of science and technology became the leading factor providing 80-85% of a gain of labor productivity in the developed countries and conducts to radical transformations in economy of many states and the whole continents. NTP, creating a basis of a sustainable development, becomes a key factor of growth of gross domestic product of the developed states, and its level defines borders between front lines and the catching-up countries. The USA – the largest innovative center generating and accumulating its results. Japan since 1940 to the middle of the 80th placed emphasis generally on improvement of the inventions borrowed other countries (generally at the USA and EU). These countries, especially the USA as the curator ally during the post-war period, provided access to the scientific and technical information. Now Japan itself reached high level of generation of scientific and technical knowledge and the latest technology that is evident from balance of export and import of patents and licenses.

As modern practice shows, as the major of mechanisms of statement and realization of the actual and urgent innovative directions appears according to plan – state regulation. Only such approach is capable to intensify slow innovative processes, to intensify structural shifts in the direction of highly technological research and production sector.

The state carries out innovative regulation by carrying out the motivational policy which contents includes support of all stages of innovative process: basic researches, research and development, release of skilled production, the organization of mass production, advance and realization in the market. It will be reached so according to Strategy – 2020 and Strategy – the 2030th course on innovative and structural modernization of economy, on realization of its social reference points and paradigms. This course considerably amplifies thanks to that if the natural and resource environment of the country as the initial favorable base will correspond to national interests. As the Russian economist V. Kushlin fairly notes, "… having a unique stock of primary resources of Russia (it is equally fair both on the relation and to Kazakhstan – a bus) on the arena of the international division of labor it is necessary to lean on significantly more effective model of realization of this advantage. Natural resources in foreign markets need to be exchanged not for dollars, and for equipment and the technologies, directed on effective updating of the production device, for licenses, a know-how, engineering services". [5] ] Unfortunately, this option of model is more feasible in the conditions of Russia where natural resources are in the basis at the disposal of the state or the national bourgeoisie, financial oligarchy. At rather effective state regulation by innovative process realization of offered model is possible. In Kazakhstan where in the raw sphere the foreign capital prevails, the new model of attraction of the investments, new equipment and technologies, in exchange for resources at this stage is represented to a know-how difficult. In the leading raw companies the state possesses the minority equity stake which some important decisions on internal or external actions of the companies don't influence yet acceptance. It is necessary to hope for consecutive carrying out policy of building of "the Kazakhstan contents" in branches of foreign multinational corporations in the republic which would provide national interests in development of a subsoil.

In the same communication before the republic there is a problem of a choice of branches and spheres of diversification and innovative modernization of economy. What can be based on criterion of priority of this choice? Whether frontal innovative modernization is possible in Kazakhstan or to be inclined to selective with preference of traditional branches of specialization where the republic will be able to compete in the future in the world markets? Practice of statement and the first stages of implementation of the Program of the forced industrial and innovative development visually testifies to orientation to criterion of competitiveness of traditional sectors of economy – oil, gas, uranium, mining and rare-earth metals, agriculture and grain. Respectively on their base the oil-processing, petrochemical industry, metallurgy of all repartitions, advanced processing in the nuclear industry and processing of food products forward are pushed. In them first of all have to it will be shown competitive advantages of the republic at a transfer of the newest technologies. The attentive analysis of the Program and "Road map", its yearly performance visually testify to preference of strategy of selective industrialization, and in a number of territories and regions is headed for dot modernization of important objects and spheres. [6] ]

At positive influence of the specified course on the general lifting and breaks in separate branches and spheres the basic assessment of the main process as "mainstream" arises upon the end result and efficiency of economy of the republic. Here the basic assessment of a course is necessary. What do "dot approach", "selective support" mean? On the republic such approach means separation of objects, without the solution of questions of vertical integration and a clustering of industrial complexes in branches, spheres, on territories, regions. In this case to the republic at separation, dispersion of industrial facilities and extensiveness of the low-connected regions it is difficult to count on technological interrelation, cooperation and a clustering of branches and spheres, system completeness and efficiency of their development on the territory and interregional aspect. The preference and emphasis on oil and gas sector, in our opinion, isn't quite justified. First, the technical and technological production level prevailing in branch, is rather traditional with orientation to the fulfilled world practice over the countries of the Middle East, North Africa and Latin America. Here it is it is unlikely possible to count on radical innovation (except for possible technological innovations at extraction and cleaning supersulphurous nefty from under salt domes). Secondly, rather disputable to count on construction of processing mining and chemical combines of an oil and gas complex which cope foreign owners, branches of multinational corporation of a number of the countries. The last as required actively unite on interests and resist to Kazakhstan which in position of the minority shareholder has no casting vote in the solution of fundamental questions. JSC KazMunaiGas yet doesn't play a little considerable a role in this sphere, making about 16% of oil on the republic. In the third, in the created situation any of owners in a raw complex, as far as we know, isn't going to change orientation of the companies. And GKH planned to construction at a decision stage, especially on a log of construction, a capital intensity and financing sources, and terms of construction of such objects at favorable confluences of conditions and factors usually at least lasts for 5-7 years. And hardly, though the important object worth 3-5 bln. dollars will create precedent in reorientation to innovation of the whole branch (oil and gas), republic plans on which in the next ten years are aimed generally at its extensive expansion and extraction of petrodollars by the blazed option. By the way, according to Gosprogramma's all projects of the forced industrial and innovative development for total amount more than 43 bln. dollars 13 bln. dollars are the share of the oil and gas industry, more than 10 billion – of transport and the communications, about 8 billion. – on mining and metallurgical branch, 4 billion – on power and nearly 2 billion – on the chemical industry. [7] ]

The national welfare fund "Samruk-Kazyna" stakes generally on oil and gas branch. And on other branches and spheres, somehow: metallurgy, rural farms, the uranium production, being in property of other campaigns, radical reorientation to processing productions and end of production cycles isn't provided. On the majority of subsectors and types produktsy fourth repartition in metallurgy comes to the end in China, or in final points of export of production. According to the statement of the management of FNB "Samruk-Kazyna", "… in those sectors of economy where there is no prepared labor, there are no engineering shots and from the markets are far, about what competitive advantage it is possible to speak … our national campaigns can't compete with the global companies. Raw sector can give demand for innovations … Innovations which Kazakhstan can give, to offer have to be born first of all in oil and gas sector - new boring, pipes, the spare parts which are pumping over stations … Fashion-makers in the petrochemical industry are the countries in which are developed extraction and production, or the largest consumers". [8] ] The position when innovations can be born in actually oil production - such statement of a question is problematic if it isn't incorrect. Industrial progress on the innovative beginnings, is more right on technologies focused on innovations even within the planned priorities, it is necessary to create, form on etapno, evolutionarily. Besides, as the world practice testifies, on the raw periphery branches of multinational corporation won't deliver and develop the most up-to-date technology, the equipment, spare parts because it expensive and the legislation on hi-teckkazhdy of the developed countries doesn't allow to deliver a know-how to Third World countries. Besides to industrialization on an innovative basis in traditional branches of specialization of the republic foreign investors won't show interest. They will be seeks for extensive production and product export. In the FIIR RK Program have to be interested, first of all, the national bourgeoisie if they aren't kollabriotsionist, and internal investors who on the state-private beginnings have to solve strategically important problems of the republic. As academician E.Primakov, "notes … Transfer of economy to innovative rails can't be carried out a method of single scientific and technological breaks without the powerful competitive industry". [9] In this regard the solvency of some regional programs of the forced industrialization raises doubts and alarm. Quality of projects on regions in a number of cases corresponding to the concept "forced" the new doesn't answer criterion "innovative", i.e. essentially technologically. At discussion of programs in Mazhilis of Parliament of RK it became clear that projects which were included earlier into regional programs of development of small and medium business, agriculture are included in the Card of industrialization of a number of areas. Under a pretext "innovation" new workplaces are created and budgetary funds are allocated, preferences, including tax are created, business reaches their sofinanisirovaniye from the state. The emergency method of formation of the program without rather system approach is significantly reflected in quality of projects "A road map of business for 2011-2014"

Natural strengthening of a regulating role of the state in economy, increase of a share of state ownership in the budgetary financing of programs of basic industrialization and neoindustrial modernization of national economy during the post-crisis period confirms the J conclusion. M. Keynes that the state role from regulating at certain moments becomes defining. It is a question of active economic policy of the state during the periods of economic cataclysms of the Great depression of the 30th years. Equally it is fair and to our conditions of "manual control" by economy in crisis and post-crisis years (2007-2009, 2010-2014) Therefore debatable questions of regulating and coordinating activity of the state in substantial, institutional aspect in the center and on places, especially in formation of conditions of innovative managing have to be a subject of scientific discussion and adoption of the coordinated decisions at the level of the states of the Customs union and EURASEC. In this aspect it is insistently necessary to open and recommend uniform approaches of effective public administration by innovative activity, a rational ratio of internal and external sources of investments with providing in strategic prospect of competitiveness of each of the national states in economic, scientific and technological, political and other spheres. It is a question of coordination and development of scientific mechanisms of impact on innovative dynamics, orientation to new innovative and social quality of economy, hi-tech production, science and education. All this demands the coordinated acceleration of Strategy-2020 across the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan and some other the countries of EURASEC and the HARDWARE focused on innovative having dug. But they will work only at an active directing role of the state, at coordination of intellectual potential NIS (New Independent States). Carrying out innovative policy on them while fragmentary and insufficiently systemically. The countries of EURASEC and EEP (Common economic space) need insistently on new to look at results of development of economy in the last decade, to overcome euphoria concerning the raw growth of gross domestic product the pre-crisis period, on new to prove sources of a sustainable development in the long term in aspect not only raw, how many intellectual resources: the knowledge-intensive economy creating unique knowledge, export of the latest technologies and products of innovative activity. Far it isn't casual that investments right now increased in the USA, China and India in research and development, education, health care. In the USA in September, 2010 the law on additional allocation from the budget of 30 bln. dollars for financing of small business is adopted. It will allow to create in addition 500 thousand workplaces, actively to stimulate development of a know-how, technological innovations. The same law removed a tax on the acquired new equipment. The general expenses on research and development in the USA make 2,7% of gross domestic product, Japan, Sweden, Israel – from 3,5 to 4,5% of gross domestic product. The general expenses on research and development in Russia (considerable, besides from the budget) reach while 1% of gross domestic product. Scientific and technical lag of Russia, according to academician E.Primakov, became one of the most negative manifestations of nature of its development. [10] Under the law of an attraction of big bodies, situation in science and a technological level of production in Russia covered all space of the CIS where technological lag was defined by the residual, peripheral principle of distribution of investments and raw nature of development of suburban regions.

So serious lag in scientific and technical development and an intersectoral disproportion in development of raw and processing branches in relation to conditions of Kazakhstan definitely can't be overcome by only one dot actions and single scientific and technical programs in which real influence on economy is so separate, and a set so-called "innovative projects" on areas according to a road map of business plans for 2011-2014 doesn't maintain system, complex and cluster approach to development of regions and territories, not to mention qualitative criteria of their innovation.

In the advanced countries long ago know that in the conditions of crisis modernization, and first of all IT - rearmament, creation of modern IT of infrastructure can lift production efficiency only. But with regret it should be noted that Russia and Kazakhstan as the leading countries of the HARDWARE and EEI while remain a raw enclave. 40% of gross domestic product of Russia are created at the expense of export of raw materials and only 10% give the enterprises taken with development and deployment of new technologies. Similar picture and across Kazakhstan where ½ export income is provided at the expense of sale of crude oil. Despite acceptance by Russia and Kazakhstan of known programs of the accelerated industrialization – Strategy-2020, a row a top of the managers responsible for realization of radical measures for overcoming of scientific and technical lag still remain in captivity of former, pre-crisis models of economic growth. So, well-known A.Chubays considers that it isn't necessary to refuse raw economy immediately … Branches of economy traditional for Russia … will allow it to be 50-100 more years among leading powers of the world. It is necessary to use intelligently only raw dollars for development of innovative branches, technologies, the centers". [11] ] Approximately reasonings of the management of FNB "Samruk-Kazyna" keep within the same course, so far as concerns republic specialization in the international division of labor also: in the long term Kazakhstan (for 2020-2030) it has to be focused on access on the Russian and Chinese markets. On export of raw material resources it is recommended to go to China, to build there railway and highways, pipelines and gas pipelines. If to present this trend as one of mainstream'ов, a modernization most important task, then Kazakhstan appears as the pure supplier of raw materials because in the Western China large oil and gas-processing plants, chemical concerns already are available or come to the end. So K.Kelimbetov substitutes the competition to China for deliveries of the raw raw materials. And as for Russia, it allegedly can be the competition arena for business in the sphere of manufacturing industry, such as the food and grain industry. But in the food industry of the republic now there are no some large producers with an entry into the Russian market. And as for loud the statement for meat export, these intentions while remain at level business - projects without serious material preconditions. Most important task of modernization which locates in the program of the forced industrialization, it is hardly possible to solve if it is limited to situation to be service in relation to Russia and China as it is stated above. [12] ]

 One of critical dangers during the post-crisis period from the states G-7 is the high probability of power imposing to the world of ideology of the development which is based on preservation of an exclusive priority of highly developed countries in available to more and more limited natural resources, despite of that lives in them only 1/5 part of the population of the whole world. [13] ] As on a raw asset the USA, EU countries and China openly apply for Russia and Kazakhstan.

In the advanced countries in the last decade, especially at a post-crisis stage the course on modernization and first of all IT – rearmament, creation of modern IT infrastructure, as decisive condition of the future scientific and technological revolution on a joint of the fifth and the sixth technological ways was accurately and on a substantial scale designated. So, Great Britain plans to invest China in high technologies and electronic industry of 87,7 bln. dollars for 2011-2014 is going to add till 2012 branches of 50 billion pounds sterling. "Obama's plan" provides allocation an order of 50 bln. dollars on investments into intellectual systems of power supply, the broadband Internet, medical electronic records and educational IT projects for schools. In America of 90% of the population use the computer, in Russia and Kazakhstan – from 20 to 30%.

International the exponent of development of society connects costs of IT with gross domestic product. At the advanced countries it reaches 5%, and in Russia doesn't hold out even to 2%, Kazakhstan the accounting of a similar indicator isn't provided even not that speaks about rather low level of efficiency of our economy as a whole, and business, in частности.* And the most important, root reason of such situation consists in low efficiency of management processes at all levels, the state management. And the only, key link in economic revival of our countries – large-scale high-tech industry expansion. By the way, the USA on a level of development of information and communication technologies in 2007-2008 won first place. Therefore in the developed countries of the world led by the USA unlike the moderately developed countries the "corresponding" creative class", directly taken with fundamental and search development is created. If in China 708 researchers on 1 billion are. the population (here it is necessary to consider and initial scales of the population in 1 billion 350 million people), Brazil – 462, Mexico – 321, in developed at least is five times more: in Germany-3242, USA-4605, Japan-5294, Sweden-5977. [14] ]

In the State program of the forced industrial and innovative development of Kazakhstan as bases of realization of new strategy of development of economy, it is developed and it is accepted 13 industry and 10 fundamental programs, among the last - development of the Kazakhstan contents, tariff policy, the competition, trade, innovations, mineral resources, attraction of investments, developments of power industry and technical regulation. As stimulating measures for attraction of investments in the form of release from payment of the customs duties on equipment import, tax preferences in a framework SEZ-ov are provided. Innovative grants on a transfer of new technologies, developmental development, etc. are entered. Three design offices - transport mechanical engineering, the oil and gas and mining and metallurgical equipment are created. In 2011-2012 it is planned to create two more – agricultural mechanical engineering and instrument making. The Productivity-2020 program with support of backbone and other operating enterprises, and as development of new productions is accepted. All this embraces a complex of the state measures which allow to initiate essentially new processes of modernization in priority branches and other important spheres of economy and to bring the country to new level of competitiveness. As a result the share of manufacturing industry in gross domestic product structure by 2020 will reach 13% with a complex of initiatives new business on modernization operating and support new, working in the sphere of development of high technologies.

For the beginning of 2011 in manufacturing industry of Kazakhstan to a type of wear of the equipment and non-competitiveness of products loading of capacities hardly reached 55% and labor productivity was as a result low. Wear of fixed assets on the average on branches made 43% and about 33% of the non-oil companies were incapable to participate in programs of the forced industrialization. On materials of inspection of ZertteuGroup (the analytical center JSC National Innovative Center of 2010) because of a low technical condition and shortage of own means of 24% of the non-oil companies were not ready to implementation of difficult projects and can't participate in technological modernization of economy. [15] ] According to the Productivity-2020 program the domestic enterprises generally working in the sphere of high technologies will be supported. For today wear of the equipment at the enterprises of metallurgical branch on the average makes more than 58% (here and there - to 70%), in mechanical engineering – on the average 57%, in chemical and pharmaceutical industry – more than 45%. It forces the state to stir up activities for updating of fixed assets of the domestic industry. [16] ]

For assistance of radical technological modernization and innovative development of branches and regions within the bill RK "About the State Support of Innovative Activity" in 2011 the national technological development agency" is created (NATR) ". It the uniform operator on coordination of processes it becomes innovative - technological development and granting measures state supports, orientations of applied science on requirement of business and formation of innovative clusters. Now measures for development and coordination of innovations are concentrated generally on level of authorized body of the Republic of Kazakhstan on coordination of processes of innovative development (The ministry of the industry and new technologies - MINT) and JSC National Innovative Fund. Thus systems for participation in innovative processes of regions practically aren't available. Creation of the sound regional innovative systems (RIS) under aegis "National agency …" would allow to be focused on development of a certain region taking into account its specifics, in a complex to approach to the solution of problems of the local enterprises, more closely to work with businessmen, scientists and inventors. In it an indispensable condition of increase of innovative activity on all country on base of "uniform rules of the game" in an unbinding and use of initiatives of all regions. As the regional innovative systems (RIS) it is expedient to include: development, statement and control of implementation of regional innovative programs; formation in regions of innovative infrastructure (science and technology parks, business incubators, the commercialization centers); retraining of personnel for the innovative sphere; attraction of investments for the organization and development of the knowledge-intensive innovative productions, introduction of resource-saving and environmentally friendly technologies, modernization and reconstruction of the industrial enterprises existing in the region, including financing of innovative projects, etc. Thus the methodological management and coordination of works of all RICE is carried out through MINT and NATR.

2.2 . Public administration and the Program of the forced industrial and innovative development

Stereotype artificially cultivated by neoliberals – the state – the bad manager – showed the insolvency and the state, radical state intervention represented by the governments of G-8 and G-20 rescued world economy from more destructive consequences of a world economic crisis. Only real state intervention helped to avoid a bigger imbalance and disproportions in world economic system and considerably to reduce negative consequences of global crisis endured by all countries. The world practice at the level of economic regularity proves more than once that during the periods of overcoming of the cataclysms caused by crises or world wars as it was in days of the Great depression of the 30th years of the XX century, in Europe, the USSR and Asia after World War II and now in our contemporary history when crisis of decade of the new eyelid is overcome, much increased role of state regulation and management it is necessary to recognize recovery of the destroyed economy.

The dominant of strategic state regulation by economy gains paramount value especially at critical stages of change of the world technological ways experienced after an exit from a world economic crisis by all countries of the world. It is a question actually of change of material resources of world reproduction process when the industrial, industrial stage has to be replaced neoindustrial, it is information – technological. The world economy tests the critical period of a kondratyevsky cycle of long waves, the new technological way bearing with radical revolution in development of productive forces and socially – the economic relations of the world community comes into the own. In unison it is difficult to this significant process to overestimate the leading role of the state in diversification of economy of Kazakhstan on Strategy – 2020. At active involvement of the private sector new sectors of economy are created, investment projects for providing the market of demand for hi-tech goods and the services are realized, able to become engines of modernization.

For implementation of the FIIR Kazakhstan program is in great need in direct foreign investments. According to data of UNCTAD of the UN, in 2007-2008 total inflow of DFI (direct foreign investments) to the Russian economy exceeded 130 bln. dollars (in the current prices), in 2009 of-38 bln. dollars, and in 2010 (crisis)-5 bln. dollars. At high the gross domestic product loudspeaker in 2010 (7% of a gain) Kazakhstan attracted 30 bln. dollars and on medium-term prospect the republic appears as one of investment attractive regions. And in these conditions the state is faced by a choice from options of rigid regulation: or budgetary financing of projects, or international loan. But for the republic, at this stage attraction of external investments is optimum. Considerable efforts on creation of favorable investment climate in Kazakhstan are undertaken. In this plan positive experience of modernization of the national (quasi-public) companies of Germany and Italy is saved up. As the Minister of Economics and technologies of Germany Mikael Gloss, the main secret – in innovations and investments reported at the IV Astana economic forum since 2011. Today the national companies of this European country are competitive in the market and in many areas they bring Germany to the first places. And it was succeeded to achieve it thanks to high level of specialization in industrial sector. [17] ]

In this regard within the Program of the forced industrial development of a priority task the state stimulation of innovative activity and definition of the leading directions of its investment appears. Experience of dynamically developing and developed countries confirms efficiency of transition to innovative model of economic growth. So, in Russia five directions of innovative development are defined: power supply and energy efficiency, nuclear technologies, medicine, space and information technologies. And innovative technologies managers are unanimous that around the world way of introduction of innovations in economy are science and technology parks and venture funds, need of every possible expansion and their finishing to level of world analogs admits an important element of formation of national innovative system Also need of creation of agency or any other state institute which would predict technological development admits, would be engaged in perspective innovations and ordered them. [18] ]

The FIIR program of Kazakhstan has to create first of all a reliable, modern industrial basis of innovative economy. It is important to provide an alloy of innovations that relying on the available scientific potential and practices of last years, to give them a new innovative push at the expense of loans of the western technologies. As a result Kazakhstan has to come to own base of innovative development which, according to the expert opinion, "is achievable within Strategy "2020" and "2030". By 2030 Kazakhstan has to enter into ranks industrial the developed states of the world. when spontaneous dependence on foreign technologies will be removed. Without creation of own technologies on branches of specialization of the republic we risk to remain at the level of an appendage of the developed economy, only not raw, and production. To it testifies to practice of some countries South East Asia (Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, etc.) which specialize on production and delivery to the developed countries of separate blocks of the components, the set schemes of the head companies. But also in it, and in other case investments in science, innovations and design development, and as in preparation qualified engineering and personnel for implementation of orders of the foreign centers are required.

Laying the foundation for neoindustrial economy in the republic, it is necessary to recognize with regret developed initially low level of investments into innovations which is nearly 10 times less, than in the developed countries. Besides it isn't enough to allocate budgetary funds, even if the generous. Actually money for innovations was already assigned, but there was no accurate choice of the hi-tech directions. The FIIR program of Kazakhstan has to create first of all a reliable, modern industrial basis of innovative economy. Will important provide an alloy of innovations that leaning on available scientific potential and practices of last years, to give them a new innovative push at the expense of loans of the western technologies. As a result Kazakhstan has to come to own base of innovative development to receive the domestic "know-how" in the future, called essential to accelerate diversification and to provide competitive advantages.

The list of the FIIR projects as a whole covers branches traditional for Kazakhstan: oil and gas, transport, mining and metallurgy, agrarian and industrial complex, etc. All projects assume modern technologies. Nevertheless, among them there are no directions essentially new to Kazakhstan unique, to world measures, or. Certainly, the reconstruction and modernization of branches of specialization inevitably also is necessary as initial base of transition to innovative type of economic growth. Besides Kazakhstan, as well as Russia from it incommensurably surpassing us economic and scientific and technical potential "is in the beginning of transition to innovative economy". "In 2006 more than 60% of outputs and more than 80% were the share of raw branches in the Russian Federation national export". [19] ] Specific weight of innovative production in total production didn't exceed 1,6%. Specific weight of an innovative industrial output of Russia makes 5,5% and concedes a similar indicator of the European countries by 5-6 times. The share of the innovation-active enterprises doesn't exceed 10% that as is 4-5 times lower, than in the leading European countries. In Kazakhstan it is planned to reach 10% of a share of the innovation-active enterprises by the end of 2014. Innovative and technological lag of the countries of EURASEC is rather evident on comparative indexes of industrial production technologically developed, catching-up development of the countries and actually the EURASEC countries.

Indexes of industrial production in some countries of the world (1990 =100)[20]

Typical group of the countries











technologically developed


Great Britain















































































Catching-up development



Republic of Korea…………



































































































The U.S. President B. Obama in the performance at annual meeting of the American national academy of Sciences at the end of April, 2009 declared intentions to organize the new market of the country in the sphere of science and new technologies: "For us time leaders came again to become … We won't simply reach, we will exceed level of times of space race, investing in basic and applied researches, creating new incentives for private innovations, supporting breaks in an energy drink and medicine and improving mathematical and natural-science education." The USA allocate more than 3% of gross domestic product for scientific researches and development, support of all range of basic and applied researches. According to the estimates of the Russian academician V. Nakoryakov, within the next 50 years in the USA expenses on science will make more than 400 bln. dollars a year, whereas in Russia – only 6,4 bln. dollars. Today it is the share of the USA the two fifth world expenses on research and development. It will provide overwhelming scientific and technological superiority of America in the XXI century. And the domestic science, on confirmation of the scientist, won't be able to provide competitiveness of Russia not only in competition to America, but also to a number European and developing countries, as Mexico, Philippines, South Korea. It is especially evident at their comparison on indicators of export of hi-tech production. And not casually the share of Russia in world inventions doesn't exceed 1%, and on a share of expenses for research and development in gross domestic product (1%) the country takes the 30th place. [21] Noting not indicators of science intensity of economy corresponding to the scientific capacity of Russia, with regret to have to state organizational destruction of the remains of fundamental and applied science in Kazakhstan. It is necessary to hope for considerable efforts on creation of new scientific and technological base according to Laws on science and the Program of the forced industrialization. As professor M. Abdirov truly summarizes: "… Everything depends on a role of the state, efficiency of a state administration in education and sciences, science funding, the advanced directions, prestige of scientists and scientific work in society. And main not acquisition of ready foreign technologies, and development of creative abilities to independent creation of such technologies. " [22]

In November, 2010. The government of the republic approved the Program of development of innovations and assistance of technological modernization till 2014. In this regard the National innovative fund is transformed to National technological development agency. Functions of created body are treated mainly in coordination aspect:

- financing of innovative activity through venture funds;

- analytical ensuring innovative processes and as a whole innovative policy, and as providing the state services and administration of such tools, as technological basis incubation, innovative grants, etc.

The agency is created in the form of joint stock company as well as former National innovative fund, generally as the expert and recommendatory organization. The status of National agency had to find certain administrative and administrative functions at the level of the state institute. Especially the question is raised of management of innovations at a stage of the forced industrial and innovative development of the republic within Strategy – 2020 and 2030.  where innovations define decisive qualitative characteristics of again formed productive forces which remove the country in the future in a rank of industrially developed countries. Moreover, the agency, in our opinion, has to promote definitely to formation national innovative systems with its place and a role in an eminence of qualitative content forced to industrialization, definition of priorities of innovations, their qualitative definiteness, mechanisms and measures of determination of efficiency of innovative activity in branches and spheres of economy of the republic. Just scientific and methodological uncertainty, not readiness of high-quality and quantitative approaches to innovations as to a phenomenon – the carrier of all progressive production in technological modernization determines insufficient efficiency of innovative measures, so separate and in many respects unsystematic by priorities and painful points. About a condition of innovations in Russia, equally and Kazakhstan, testifies data on production efficiency when the enterprises are occupied generally with fight for an administrative resource to achieve a state order. And for release of branded production with the innovative contents, for increase of a technological level of production due to own efforts of the enterprise due responsibility don't bear. For comparison: Russia exports hi-tech production approximately on 1 bln. dollars whereas China – on 420 bln. dollars. It is necessary to build consistently to our countries innovative economy. In this aspect it is difficult to overestimate a role and value of National agency on technological development. The exit to a foreign market where today our country actually isn't presented (except only a few types of raw materials) is necessary. Only there in concrete fight it is possible to prove efficiency and a demand of the innovative production. Thus, building innovative economy, the President of RK focuses on real prospect – by the time of the solution of tasks "Strategy - 2030", the country surely has to enter into number of industrially developed countries. At the USA on it 25 years, at Israel and Finland – for 10 years left, Singapore has about 30 years. [23] ] Besides, formation of the developed national innovative system indissolubly with functioning of a large-scale, extensive network of fundamental and applied development, the innovative and technological centers that assumes consecutive strengthening of a scientific and methodological, technical basis of innovative transformations. In September, 2010 N.A.Nazarbayev at cabinet council of ministers of the republic spoke need of creation of special body – Agencies of strategic researches for the analysis and forecasting of modern global problems with development of recommendations about topical issues of domestic and foreign policy. In the article "Keys from Crisis" the President of RK proved relevance of anticipatory monitoring of the future calls of an eyelid, the world and mankind.

In the developed bill "About State Support of Industrial and Innovative Development" the National technological development agency as the main directions doesn't go beyond traditional syryevidny branches and spheres, somehow:

- oil and gas branch;

- Agrarian and industrial complex in the sphere of biotechnologies and agricultural sciences;

- mining and metallurgical complex;

- geology (fundamental and applied aspects)

- infocommunication sphere.

Besides, in the conditions of the increasing technological lag of the countries occupied generally with neoindustrial programs, guards and the position National can't but cause basic disagreement agency about ways of modernization primenitelny to today's level of economic development of Kazakhstan. First, as it is possible to claim that it is almost impossible to introduce the last technologies for PFIIR RK and the base of innovative development the forthcoming five years should be provided at the expense of a transfer of technologies generally from Russia and China, "that on the first measures to satisfy technical hunger". [24] ]

Considering technological lag of Russia for today and orientation of China generally on a transfer of technologies from abroad the specified position of National agency on technological development (the successor of National innovative fund) not only it isn't acceptable but if to follow the recommendation of evolutionary, gradual, trend, "step-by-step" approach to development and introduction of new technologies, innovations, it is right way to doom the country to "hvostizm" in the conditions of the forced industrial progress not only in developed, but also leading developing countries, on what the program of modernization of economy of the republic is entirely focused also. The innovation is unambiguously treated as introduction, commercialization of new knowledge, the ideas expressed in the last technologies. And the main installation of the accelerated modernization and attraction of foreign investments is expressed in economic agreements with foreign partners:" investments only together with new technologies". It is a peculiar analog of "the connected credits". And has to be. Further, why in the next years in a transfer of technologies the country has to be guided by Russia and China? To what then active actions of the republic on economic cooperation for attraction of the latest technologies with the developed states of Europe, the USA, South East Asia, widely advertized Way to Europe program? Fundamental questions of the theory and practice of technical and technological cooperation and ways of mutually advantageous optimization of innovative development are urgent for discussion in RK Parliament, at governmental level, on the Highest scientific and technical council on innovations and technologies; And when developing frame interstate bills parliamentary hearings with adoption of the relevant recommendatory proposals – decisions are obligatory.

Reorganization of post-crisis world economy and financial the systems, coinciding with the accelerated updating of its technological basis, more than ever staticizes a problem of crediting of the enterprises mastering perspective productions and financial security of scientific and technological progress as a whole. The bank and investment system developed and developing countries has a number of positive examples of program financing of technological updating of branches, the spheres, the separate enterprises. In this plan experience of China where large-scale modernization of economy takes place in conditions of rigid financial control deserves attention and issue under plans of modernization of manufacturing enterprises passes through the state banks. Are similar approximately experience of financial planning in India (issue under the priority directions of development) or managements of credit streams in Japan (issue under the state priorities).

In Kazakhstan as there is an analog of program financing on implementation of the FIIR program till 2020. Here represents practically interest how in each of noted countries approach to definition of so-called "priorities". Because the priority directions of technological progress in the certain countries, integration groups develop or according to strategic programs, or at the initiative of multinational corporation at state stimulation, especially at a stage of active public transformation. This assistance is especially significant in the light of the Message of the U.S. President to the congress in September, 2009. In any case after recovery from the crisis and modernization of economy the trend of strengthening of state regulation is shown. This process is noted also by experts of the international centers especially at a stage of formation of qualitatively new material base of economy both developed, and developing countries. It is a question of objective need of formation of optimum mechanisms of the monetary offer, aimed at crediting of real sector of economy and the priority directions of its development. It is possible at a combination indirect (refinancing on the security of bills of the solvent enterprises) and straight lines (joint financing of state programs, granting state guarantees) ways of the monetary offer. Rate on attraction of investments from abroad for Kazakhstan, as well as for Russia and other developing countries turned back (in the years of crisis and after an exit from it) considerable outflow of own capital and growth of foreign control over considerable part of profitable assets, orientation (still bigger) economy for raw materials export. For Kazakhstan achievement self-sufficient, leaning on internal sources of financing of investment system while the problem of the prospect connected with restructuring of economy on the basis of forced industrialization. As academician S. Glazyev notes, the domestic market being under pressure of an external environment, isn't capable to solve a problem of modernization of economy and lifting of high-tech industries without a purposeful state policy of development. Commercial banks can't independently augment the capital to level of real sector adequate to requirements. Therefore objectively there is a need for state programs of financial support of priority branches, regions, small business, in the state stimulation of demand for goods of internal demand. It is necessary as creation of system of refinancing of commercial banks under credit obligations of manufacturing enterprises. [25] ] These trends and necessary measures for the financial market and stimulation of hi-tech productions are characteristic in the same measure and for Kazakhstan.

As world experience testifies, at a stage of active public transformation cruel administrative beginning is capable to accumulate resources for fast development, to ensure safety and creation of effective economy. So there was in South Korea, China during the last reforms, in Malaysia and some other the countries which Whether have made on expression of "the father of the Singapore reforms" Chuen Yu, breakthrough from the third world in the first. Carrying out active scientific and technical and structural policy, as conditions of innovative break, indissolubly with financing of scientific researches. In the West large corporations possess own network of research institutes and design offices, support venture projects, give orders to universities. Huge insurance and pension funds, pursuing commercial aims, invest in actions of the hi-tech companies. The state in innovative economy not only creates the normal investment environment, but in practice developed and the developing countries having own programs and reserves of internal accumulation, "force" business and sciences to innovations, do orders to large multinational corporations and scientific centers. So was with the space project in the USSR, the star program of J. Kennedy of the beginning of the 60th years. Such hopes are rested upon the innovative Skolkovo complex in Russia, the innovative center "Ala Tau" in Kazakhstan.

The official idea of transition to innovative development of Russia was sounded in the message "Russia forward" by president Dm. Medvedev in 2009. The rate becomes on development of six main directions: power and energy saving, nanotechnologies, biotechnologies, rational environmental management and information technologies. For this purpose started creating system of institutes of financial support of innovative development. Some federal target programs are started:" Researches and development in the priority directions of development of a scientific and technological complex ", " development of infrastructure of a nanoindustry", with as "Creation in the Russian Federation of science and technology parks in the sphere of high technologies". The Russian Venture Company (RVC) – state structure is created, the state corporation with mainly state capital, investing money in private venture (i.e. investing in a know-how) funds is more right. The state corporation (now it is transformed to joint stock company) finances commercially attractive and already realized business – projects. Despite investments, specific weight of innovative production in the Russian economy there are low, under the certificate of prime minister V. Putin a little more than 5%. The share of the enterprises which are carrying out innovations, makes less than 10%. Private business not to hurry to be engaged in venture business, investments in a know-how are considered as the most risky. The Russian and Kazakhstan investment funds while are state and take all risk on itself, carrying out venture investment to profile projects. Financing of fundamental and applied science generally as destiny of the state budget and the national companies therefore the share of gross domestic product directed, on innovations doesn't exceed a critical threshold of 0,2-0,4% of gross domestic product in 2011, 02-0,3% - in 2012 and 0,2% - 2013. [26] ] Science funding in Kazakhstan as isn't enough for today – only 0,22% from the gross domestic product level. It is considered that the state has no prospects in economic development if this indicator is equal 0,5%, for tolerable maintenance of economy 1% is necessary. But, to receive due return from science, it is necessary to allocate for it on the average 3-4% from the gross domestic product level. Kazakhstan according to the FIIR program believes to allocate for financing of 0,5% from gross domestic product in 2014 and about 2% - in 2020. In the Western countries already today the science is financed in volume from 3 to 4% to gross domestic product. [27] ] It should be noted, on the near-term outlook – for post-crisis recovery of world economy and speeding up of innovative breaks both in developed, and in developing countries with overtaking or catching-up development (the countries BRICK, South East Asia) the environment of a foreign market for Kazakhstan and Russia that to estimates of experts, will favor to accumulation of currency reserves. So, by the end of May, 2011 gold and foreign exchange reserves of Russia exceeded 518 bln. dollars (the third position in the world after the USA and China), and across Kazakhstan they reached 70 bln. dollars. The task consists in their purposeful use for internal accumulation and implementation of innovative projects. The active scientific and technical, institutional, financial and structural policy of the state on mobilization of resources of all subjects of managing of mixed economy on support of hi-tech managing subjects, their scientific and implementation base is necessary. Thus in scientific and technical policy the choice of priorities, development and implementation of target programs, achievement of innovative effect in technological level and productivity has crucial importance. The institutional policy, creation of the necessary legal, organizational and valuable structures maintaining innovative activity and providing the favorable environment for large-scale innovations isn't less important.

The FIIRRK program till 2020 and Strategy-2030 in the long-term plan is focused on economy transition from export and raw development to innovative type. Tasks of achievement of the international standards of science funding, education and health care as conditions of the forced formation of the intellectual, human capital are set. Are for this purpose necessary considerably and creatively conceiving shots of managers, the scientific intellectuals, managers. At an exit stage from a depression and transition to new technological way rational use of financial resources, effective financial security of the important tasks demanded by special programs and business plans of Strategy – 2020 find the special importance. As academician S. Glazyev notes, the Russian monetary authorities emitted for overcoming of crisis of money directed overwhelming part on support of commercial banks without any obligations from their party. [28] ] The same was characteristic and for Kazakhstan. Multi-billion means, generally from the state reserves, were allocated to a number of leaders of banks of the second level without preliminary public conditions and obligations for their target use, especially in the sphere of support of innovations and high technologies. These means were used by part for repayment of debts of banks, and the considerable part remained and in their assets. They, having filled up liquidity of banks, aren't used as the long credits which so necessary for are forced industrialization. Besides in the majority of the developed countries the prime attention was paid to a target expenditure of anti-recessionary money for support and modernization of economy and innovative activity. So, a share of expenses on development of advanced technologies for modernization of power, transport and housing-and-municipal infrastructure in anti-recessionary programs of Korea made 80.5%, EU – 58,7%, China – 37,8%, at this time as in Russia – no more than 1,5% при15,5% on the world economy as a whole. Across Kazakhstan in general there is no static information on target use of the state credits allocated in support of BVU. [29] ]

For the solution of strategic problems of the accelerated industrialization and innovative modernization Russia and Kazakhstan as members of the HARDWARE (Customs union) have considerable favorable preconditions. It to treat, first of all, high educational level of the population, personnel potential in scientific to the technical sphere. They own the rich natural resources, internal needs providing the most part for raw materials and energy carriers. Besides, Russia supports and will develop the academic and branch scientifically technological structures on a number of the directions of modern scientific and technological progress. Measures for reform of the scientific and educational sphere on new "To the law on science" in Kazakhstan are rather extensive and encourage. The solution of all these tasks requires system, purposeful management of financial streams with new mechanisms monetary and credit, the tax and budgetary and currency policy, focused on the forced industrial and innovative development and the solution of problems of innovative strategy.

2.3 . Potential of industrial modernization of Russia and Kazakhstan: initial level and problems

It is conventional, globalization and intensively being formed innovative type of development defining the content of new technological way became major factors of growth of world economy. If globalization influences quantitative parameters of development, rationally mobilizing resources and factors of world economy, innovations define quality and a paradigm of economic growth. The globalization future when on a break the world financial, currency relations critically are tested, system of macroregional and interstate balance communications – all these processes, by estimates, are exposed to reconsideration, their partial and radical reorganization in the long term.

All countries of the world seriously experienced destruction of world crisis, but are full of determination to restoration and progress. EU countries, the USA and Japan – natural base of modernization, exactly there are the centers of advanced technologies. To innovative support to the west the alternative isn't present. At the same time indicators of the countries of ATR (Pacific Rim) continue to grow, having increased even in the lowest point of crisis by 3,5%. The western investments into Russia and the state of Central Asia including Kazakhstan, were reduced, and – grew from ATR three times. 60% of global gross domestic product, a half of world trade and 40% of investments are the share of the region today. And these indicators, by estimates of world financial centers, will grow. The center of world development will be displaced to the east more and more. And the potential of development of the countries of ATR is really huge, including in innovative branches. ATR countries also potential source of large-scale investments and industrial technologies [30].

Innovative strategy – the most reliable way on which and all developing countries can leave crisis, solving at the same time the general problem of the forced industrialization. Experts of world economy are unanimous in opinion that industrialization of the countries of overtaking development and an innovation of the developed countries after crisis with bigger probability will receive big acceleration. Because a material basis of recovery from the crisis is mass updating of production by the advanced innovative technology. Especially the problem of the accelerated updating of fixed assets on leading branches costs especially sharply when the world solves complex problems of full development of the fifth technological way and consecutive transition to the sixth way on the basis of the ultramodern concept of NBI (nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and kongitivny science). There will be a rough take-off of nanotechnologies. After 2020 the civilization change connected with bioeconomy [31] is probable. The USA most seriously stake on innovative breakthrough, as a basis of new national competitiveness in the XXI century. "Obama's law – Biden", adopted by the congress in 2009, planned doubling of investments into fundamental science for the forthcoming ten years and measures for stimulation of production and consumption of the knowledge-intensive production. And, certainly, the American science, the most powerful in the world, will grow most quicker in the world absolutely and relatively. She relies on the largest economy in the world (25% of production of world gross domestic product at the capacity of 16 trillion dollars) that allows to allocate 87 bln. dollars for the science, new development annually.

In the world there are methods of the integrated assessment and experience of integration comparisons of national innovative systems. Russia - is near from group of innovatively lagged behind countries. China – in group of innovative persecutors, besides with a rate on own innovations. In the general approach in the world four strategy of innovative growth [32] were definitely designated:

1 . Total leadership in all directions to what the USA aspire.

2 . Overtaking development, massive loan of technologies. This strategy was used successfully by Japan, South Korea, today – China. The Russian and Kazakhstan sector of mobile communication goes the same way.

3 . Localization of innovations when the foreign companies in exchange for access to natural resources with a condition of advanced technologies of production, geological exploration, and also placement of research productions in the country are invited. Across Kazakhstan, unfortunately, these conditions in a Production Sharing Agreement (agreements on production section) with branches of multinational corporation aren't stipulated also their activity actually not транспарентна even to power structures of the republic. There is no assessment and access to applied technologies. There are no placed research centers, and production is generally limited to production and transfer of hydrocarbonic raw materials. In these conditions the Tengizshevroil company (TShO) as it is recently revealed, was engaged in not authorized deep drilling for realization of negligible production. The government of the republic made to the company the claim on 1 billion dollars (2010).

Strategy of localization of innovations with severe constraints is successfully used by Norway on offshore fields with an exit to the whole cluster of advanced technologies. And Norway from a raw appendage of Europe turned into the exporter of innovations. Now this way is repeated by Saudi Arabia.

Russia and Kazakhstan with identical initial paradigms should develop accurate conditions of loan of technologies and strictly to adhere to them in the development plan of technologically interconnected productions.

4 . The fourth strategy consists in use of technologies of defense industry for the consumer market.

One of deep features of modern world economy is that developed the world is at a stage of transition to new fifth technological way, developing countries with the new markets, or E-7 countries (China, India, Brazil, Russia, Mexico, Indonesia and Turkey), called by the countries of overtaking development, possess high potential of growth. Analysts from PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC), the authoritative company in the field of consulting and audit, consider that in the next decade the largest emerging markets as E-7, the created leading economy will catch up and will start preparing for overtaking them. G–7 countries (the USA, Great Britain, France, Germany, Canada, Italy, Japan) mean. According to PwC forecast, by 2020 of the country of E7 will overtake G7 countries according to cumulative gross domestic product. By 2030 cumulative gross domestic product of E7 will be 30 percent more, than cumulative gross domestic product of G7. The Chinese economy will reach peak by 2020. India can already come to the third place according to national gross domestic product by 2012, having outstripped Japan, and after 2020 probably China will develop much quicker, than. Russia on the volume of gross domestic product can overtake Germany by 2030 and take the sixth place in a universal rating.

E7 countries sharply increased expenses on development of modern technologies to escape forward and to be on a crest of technological revolution. According to the scientific report of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), growth of economy of the countries of E7 will make 6% and 6,3% respectively in 2010 and 2011 [33]

And at the same time in world economy there is a deep strip farming: over one hundred more states, big and small, didn't pass a stage of industrialization and are among raw and agrarian appendages of world economy. It is necessary to carry gallery of the states of the Middle East, Africa, Latin America, the Euroasian continent to them. Among them it is possible to call a number of the countries of the Central and Eastern Europe, with different degree of the admission – the young states of a post-socialism led by Russia which efforts on overcoming of negative historical heritage while remain vain. There are loud statements, but there are no serious, real actions. At first it is necessary to estimate resources (financial and intellectual), then to decide on scientifically reasonable strategic directions and priorities of development of economy and science. In recent years in the countries with the developed economy the share of expenses for scientific researches and development made 2,5 – 3% of gross domestic product while on the Commonwealth (CIS) this indicator decreased to 0,4 – 0,5%.

If "modernization" and "innovations" as economic categories are conventional in economic science, as decisive levers of break in new quality of world productive forces and the social relations, problems according to their contents – a subject of intense discussions. Because in the substantial plan these categories for each group of the countries with specific problems of updating and modernization have own value in aspect of definition of strategic programs, temporary limits of updating and transformation of their economy. As experts consider, within these processes transition of subjects of world economy to essentially new technologies will be carried out, modernization of national economies on modern scientific and technical base will be carried out.

Updating – one of the most important calls facing the states of the CIS, the Customs Union (CU). As the Minister of Finance of Russia A.Kudrin reasonably declared, without exact definition of the concept "innovation" it is impossible to understand, what exactly to support, what branches, what directions. According to the president of the Russian union of industrialists and A.Shokhin's businessmen, in Russia it is necessary to concentrate not on innovations as those, and on modernization. In what here difference? It is considered to be innovations certain breaks in science and, as a result, the arising essentially new technologies providing qualitatively new labor productivity level. Modernization – replacement of the equipment by more modern. If to mean wear of the equipment of existing branches and spheres at the level of 60–70%, and even losses of the whole important links in a technological chain of the interconnected productions in economy of Russia and Kazakhstan, equally and in the majority of CIS countries, certainly, a priority task for our countries modernization is represented. Condition of industrial base in Kazakhstan such is that except for raw branches other blocks of an industrial complex look outdated, archaic production, and a number of important links of mechanical engineering, the whole branches of the light and food industry were in general lost. Therefore it is impossible to start to innovations with not modernized, outdated, archaic production. Modernization has to precede innovations. Modernization has to be general initial base of the simultaneous solution of problems of post-industrial and innovative economy. Involuntarily it is necessary to recognize reasons of opinion of the Russian economist A.Shokhin: "… For us modernization is more important now. Let's look to the truth in eyes: condition of industrial base in Russia such is what to think of innovations – all the same what to dream of flights in space, sitting in a cave. Innovations can be stimulated on a design basis with adoption of schemes of implementation of breakthrough decisions, venture mechanisms, institutes of development and other, than it is accepted to stimulate innovative business in the world" [34]. Even more definitely strategic problem of updating, modernization of economy of Kazakhstan was expressed by the President of RK N.A.Nazarbayev in the message of 2010 to the people "New decade – new economic recovery – new opportunities of Kazakhstan". The paradigm designated by the President of the country, assumes the accelerated diversification and increase of competitiveness of national economy at the expense of decrease in its raw dependence. Within the program of the forced industrial and innovative development some priority branches, to modernization and to which development the special attention will be paid are allocated. In fact, these branches are Basic Elements of national economy of Kazakhstan. Long-term economic development of Kazakhstan depends on their successful development as a whole. Though, adequately the regret that in this complex didn't appear places to a number of traditionally important branches in recent times defining specialization of the republic. We mean easy and food, giving-out respectively 15 and 18% of gross output of the industry, and also mechanical engineering and the metal working, successfully filling leading mining and metallurgical productions and agrarian spheres. As N.A.Nazarbayev claims: "In the conditions of world crisis we were convinced: we have no alternative of industrialization, we can't hope for a subsoil, oil, gas and metals. We have to create the industry of Kazakhstan which actually wasn't. We were the raw state in the Soviet Union and these years fought for the statehood. When came to growth trajectory, now there is an opportunity practically to be engaged in country industrialization" [35]. The problem of large-scale updating of all production base of real sector of economy of the republic is solved. Now at the expense of the forced industrialization and infrastructure development the accent is displaced from the extensive growth of economy on industrial and innovative on the basis of diversification and formation of more modern branch structure. The program of the forced industrial and innovative development of the country for 2010-2014 and "– 2020", according to the statement of the management of the republic, all preconditions for the radical modernization, the forced diversification and country industrialization give the strategic plan.

The purposes and the main bastings of technological diversification, decrease in raw dependence and increase of competitiveness of the country really in line with positive aspirations of developing countries. The real starting position of the republic, despite high dynamics of economic growth, active participation in integration processes, is rather difficult and realization of program problems of industrialization with elements of innovative development is interfaced to considerable difficulties. Intensive growth of export sector of economy in the last decades wasn't connected with reproduction process in other sectors of economy. The raw sector developed rather anklavno in interests of branches of multinational corporation that negatively affects strengthening of disproportions in economy, the increasing lag of the country from world tendencies of development. As a result in Kazakhstan there was a raw model. It is enough to tell, during declaration of the first industrial and innovative program since 2003. the share of processing branch in structure of the industry was reduced from level about 40% to 28%, and extracting – increased approximately with 50 to 63%. Approximately on as much (with 65 to 77%) the share of export of mineral products in the total amount of sales [36] grew.

In the program of the forced industrialization (2010 - 2014) tasks of increase of a share of manufacturing industry in gross domestic product structure to level not less than 12,5%, and non-oil export in a total amount of export – not less than 40% are set. Besides, increase of a share of the Kazakhstan contents in purchases of goods and services, and innovatively active enterprises – to 10% from number operating, decrease in power consumption of gross domestic product at the expense of introduction of advanced technologies is reached. According to the experts, the problem of increase in a share of non-oil sector in a total amount of export and production is represented rather difficult. On planned indicators in the medium-term period to leave possible as a result of advancing increase in production and the world prices for metals in comparison with increase in production and energy costs.

It is necessary to specify that the five-year program of the forced industrialization includes the projects connected with modernization and modernization of operating and construction of new capacities, including the infrastructure. Judging by the list of objects, they should be qualified as industrial objects of wide range and appointment. Here it is difficult to define and allocate especially innovative projects. Generally new buildings and modernization of the operating enterprises will be carried out at the expense of a transfer of foreign technologies on the basis of state-private business. More than one hundred projects is included in the card of industrialization for total amount over 45 bln. dollars. And a half of this sum is made by National welfare fund "Samruk-Kazyna" injections. Implementation of these projects is important from the point of view of import substitution, employment of the population, increase of labor productivity and energy efficiency of economy.

It is difficult to carry out industrial and innovative development of the country without break in the mechanical engineering which share in the total amount of industrial production decreased from 15,9% in 1990 to 2,8% in the 2008th, and wear of the equipment makes from 43 to 80%. However planned investment projects in this branch are submitted generally by "screwdriver" productions. Such, as lokomotivosborochny plant, assembly production of cars, combines, main electric locomotives, buses, construction equipment.

As for the innovative organization of economy, it is necessary to recognize, in the republic questions of the contents, a role and a place of innovations, innovative break in development of the economy, certain spheres and branches, methods of definition of a measure of influence of innovative innovations on level of the enterprises, separate links of economy and the social relations aren't worked still. Therefore scientific character of definition of "innovatively active enterprises" which share in 10 years has to increase with 4 to 20% raises serious doubts. There is unproven a measure and extent of change of structure of domestic economy as a whole, as main objective of the program on diversification and increase of level of competitiveness of the country.

Invariable, liberal there is a policy of the state in relation to foreign investors. They are offered to expand the presence at Kazakhstan with a way of participation in the projects included in the program of industrial and innovative development. Those investors who will start investing not simply in building of new productions will be encouraged thus, but also to introduce new technologies in our economy and to train the Kazakhstan experts in new innovative professions. It is a question of mutually beneficial cooperation on implementation of projects with a high value added. Field of activity for investors very wide, especially within priority branches and productions, as leading directions of modernization and diversification. In this plan formation more favorable for investments and climate business on the taxation and customs declaring proceeds. Thus not only tax load of business decreases, but also customs procedures become simpler and reduced. In the list of the World bank about ease of business Kazakhstan takes the 63rd place [37].

In the conditions of recovery from the crisis for economic recovery and foreign investments in the developed countries there are so-called sovereign investment funds (SIF). These are the public budgetary funds. They can be created and at the expense of expansion of functions of already existing funds (for example, in Russia – Reserve and FNB or NF in Kazakhstan). SIF in Kuwait exists 60 years, and the volume of assets of Emiratsky SIF (United Arab Emirates) already comes nearer to 1 trillion dollars. In crisis years they support large banks, investment funds, multinational corporation on the terms of recoverability. During the quiet periods favorable for business the part of means of SIF goes to the successful, foreign companies favorable to investments, investment objects. The received dividends go to the budget where they are distributed according to items of expenditure. While SIF didn't gain distribution in Russia. In 2009 Russia intended to invest abroad 25 bln. dollars, but crisis prevented. Experience of foreign investments is available and in Kazakhstan (in Georgia, Romania, in Ukraine), for the account both budgetary funds, and commercial banks. Due to the activity of foreign investors in the world the protectionism wave rises, including and the countries BRICK (Brazil, Russia, India and China) and a wide range of developing countries. Except for underdeveloped, in great need in investments, and a subtropical belt of the Afro-Asian countries. In relation to foreign investments of Germany limits their participation of 20% of the capital of any company. It and no wonder because Germany being the largest world exporter and a superpower of EU, adheres to export-oriented policy as in the form of the capital, and deliveries of goods, rendering the technical and personnel assistance to foreign countries, having from it solid dividends and odds for political expansion. Japan also limited access of foreign investments of 10% from own assets of the multinational corporations. In the USA in general extremely limited access of foreign investments to the economy. But the USA covered with the financial network almost all globe. Among the main mechanisms of foreign influence and penetration: dollar, as reserve currency; leadership in IMF; large-scale investments abroad through branches of the multinational corporations; volume programs of the help to the foreign states and мн. other. And penetration of SIF of foreign countries into economy of the USA isn't welcomed because there are enough reserves and sources of investments. Also it is considered that behind each action of foreign investments there are interests of others state [38]. In it there are also serious reasons because in the conditions of developing countries which Kazakhstan, with large-scale programs of development of resources and formations of hi-tech productions treats also, the concept of preservation of economic safety has to be a national priority. Foreign investments in Kazakhstan, especially to the raw sphere, have to be adjustable and operated. The legislative solution of a measure of availability and investment appeal of the country always has to be solved in interface to cardinal problems of consecutive increase of the Kazakhstan maintenance of high-tech, innovative industries and economy spheres.

The problem of modernization of economy of Russia most seriously occupies minds of prominent scientists-economists. Pays attention the fundamental work "Strategic Reference Points of Economic Development of Russia" [39] where the selective principle of prime concentration of investments on limited number of the priority directions representing the last achievements of innovative, technological progress in world and domestic science is offered. The available monetary capital of the country is recommended to be sent to key projects which will allow economy to make breakthrough. The main directions – the biotechnologies based on achievements of molecular biology and genetic engineering, nanotechnology, system of artificial intelligence, global information networks and the integrated high-speed transport systems. On these priorities of world fundamental science and their applied development Russia conducts serious researches and their target financing has to, according to scientists-experts, provide real break in national economy. It is expected that there will be still a big intellectualization of production, transition to continuous innovative process in the majority of branches and to continuous education in the majority of professions. But, certainly, before being put in development of modern technologies, it is necessary to recover the industry. But also here it is offered to choose only limited number of the industrial directions with possible redistribution of property. Rather large branch corporations aimed at development and release of hi-tech production, for example business lot machine-building production have to be created. In case of refusal present owners from directive requirements to create effective corporations, it is offered to resolve an issue of compulsory change of the owner in a judicial order. If especially in due time at privatization the real price of acquired object was broken. Then it is quite logical to bring up a question, on what basis this owner possesses business. "All electronics in the country was sold out for 1,5% from its real cost", - academician L. Abalkin claims.

There is a question who will invest money in economy development. According to authors "Strategic reference points …", to innovative model of economy Russia could take the first step by own efforts. In it essential difference of the Russian approach of selective investment from the Kazakhstan model of the shirokoglasny appeal to foreign sources. Besides in Russia as leading economists consider, with large business not everything is all right where profitability level in a number of spheres reaches 250%, and it is necessary to take money for modernization from it. Serious doubts concerning legitimacy of a large private property and the capital equally, in our opinion, are applicable and to Kazakhstan. And the question of reorientation of large property to the solution of actual tasks of the industrial and innovative program deserves the most close attention. Consecutive democratization of society and the requirement of transparency of activity of the large companies as the universal tendency, brings to a conclusion about need of active attraction of the private capital to the solution of national tasks. Pattern spell about inviolability of a private property as "a sacred cow of capitalism", maybe it is broken when fatal problems of the country are solved: "to be or not to be" to sovereign economy on the basis of modern technological way. In a word, Kazakhstan, Russia, other CIS countries on approaches to innovative modernization whereas the world economy already is in a big transformational cycle. There is an active change of post-industrial society with essentially new technological way. The innovative economy in the developed market systems, as a rule, is under construction on the basis of achievements of own science, realization of its results in the form of opening and the inventions put in a basis of leading branches of economy.

About a modern level of development of the countries, in different degree of high technologies using achievement, it is possible to judge according to the volume of nominal gross domestic product. Though gross domestic product the generalized quantitative index reflecting output and services in this or that country, nevertheless he gives the chance to judge the general economic capacity of the countries that, finally, is the general and initial basis of increase of qualitative characteristics of activity of members of society.

Assessment of nominal gross domestic product of the leading countries and Kazakhstan (in bln. dollars of the USA, according to the International Monetary Fund) for 2008-2014



















European Union






















































Great Breatan



































* Data for 2009-2014 – expected.

In the modern world where level of economic and scientific and technological potential in a decisive measure is defined by efficiency of basic researches and applied development, the attention to science directly defines opportunities and prospects of post-crisis breakthrough of this or that country. So, in the developed countries the share of expenses on science reaches 16% of the budget. In the West and in the USA huge attention pay to high technologies, science and scientists. Today the world under the power and control of the USA is more and more polarized on техноэлиту and техноплебс. Otherwise, on producers who creates innovative technologies, and dealers who is able to serve production not created by it only. In Russia and Kazakhstan process of use of foreign technology and production went too far. Growth of a transfer of foreign technologies goes for a long time advancing rates, and in Kazakhstan modernization and building of new objects of the industry and infrastructure entirely are based on the "put" foreign technology. For the lack of own scientific ideas and introduced development, system loan of the whole objects and technological lines in the republic is erected in a rank of officially accepted and not causing special cares of technical policy. In Kazakhstan the last 15 years in a pursuit of fast results from science were generally taken not with system approach to statement and development of the fundamental directions of science and its applied aspects (Research and development). State officials from science in a bigger measure were involved in infinite reorganization of the sphere of management by science, especially its academic part, having finished it finally honor in little significant public educations. Result of all these reorganization is for today loss of the last remains of basic researches and attempt of their reorientation to pseudo-efficiency, receiving momentary results, than in the basic and are engaged in JSC Parasat. The scientific world at full capacity solves today actual problems of the fifth technological way, or the so-called kondratyevsky K-cycle, based on the Internet and telecommunications, information economy, or economy of knowledge. On the agenda transition to the sixth way, on ways of association of systems of sciences (nanotechnology, genetic engineering, biotechnology, the intellectual and information network, alternative power engineering). So considerably industrialism and post-industrialism era in which snare all developing countries including the post-socialist still flounder changes. And educated, developed the world, especially in the conditions of need of the accelerated overcoming of post-crisis destruction, the solution of problems of the fifth and sixth technological ways considers as a most important task of transfer of human society in a new qualitative condition. On essentially new hi-tesh and IT the indissoluble unity of the person, society and the nature in the course of knowledge and social practice is provided to a wave. It is philosophy of the highest order which wasn't put yet before homosapiens conscious, creating.

Rosstat and the Higher school of economy at the end of 2009 prepared the detailed report "About a condition of science and equipment in Russia" [40]. Today only 0,3% of the world market of the knowledge-intensive production, and for the USA are the share of Russia – 36%, Japan – 30%, Germany – 17%. In this plan Russia lags behind the West on the whole technological way, South Korea, Taiwan and Finland – for 15 – 20 years, without speaking about more developed USA, Germany, Japan, Israel. In the USA 75% of the scientific organizations, and in Russia – only 6% are engaged in innovative activity. As for innovatively active enterprises, in Russia their no more than 10%, and in EU countries – 44%. Less than 1% of the Russian large companies are engaged in research and development (and in the private companies of such structures in general isn't present), and in the West – 2/3 companies. In the USA of 80% of gross domestic product is defined by technological innovations. Within the forthcoming ten years for development of innovative technologies of the future of the USA allocate 150 bln. dollars annually. These are very indicative target expenses if to mean that 40% of world volume of scientific researches and costs of science are the share of the USA. And it is natural, 40% of world volume of the knowledge-intensive production fall to lot of the USA, 30% - to Japan, 16% - to Germany and about 0,3% - to Russia. In the world market of hi-tesk Russia concedes even tiny, actually to the state corporation Singapore which share equals 6%. South Korea makes hi-tesk on 340 bln. dollars, Russia – on only 1 bln. dollars. (And, for certain, this "exclusive" production of Russia won't get on the market of the Customs union). From here it is possible to judge level of technological effectiveness of the industry of Russia. What can borrow Kazakhstan on new technologies and what level production should be acquired at Russia if 30% of commodity turnover are the share of deliveries from the Russian Federation? Following the results of 2009 the contribution of Russia to world science provided only 2,6% of new researches. It is 7 times less, than at the USSR, is 3 times less than in China for today and by 1,5 times – than in India. On what in these conditions can count Kazakhstan which has lost the last remains of fundamental science, not having modern research and industrial science and technology parks. On level of development and introduction of high technologies Russia appeared on the 67-70th place. And in these conditions to Kazakhstan, comparable with bulk of developing countries, not a reason entirely to be guided by domestic market of the Customs union where the share of Russia with obviously noncompetitive production absolutely prevails. And in general the destiny of the HARDWARE as it is officially presented "with its capacious on 170 million people domestic market", in our opinion, will undergo serious tests when members of the union not "ensemble" as it was expected in the beginning, and strictly in an individual order will join WTO. Radical change of the customs duties, instead of customs regulation, protectionist and tax measures will demand recognition of rule of rules and measures of the WTO both rather definitely scientific and technological and innovative opportunities of each member of this international organization will be regulated at qualitatively new level.

Kazakhstan in the international division of labor in the conditions of globalization positions itself as one of the conventional and perspective raw regions. Over the last 10 years the share of mineral products in cumulative export increased with 56 to 77,3%. The second-large article of the Kazakhstan export are metals and products from them. In 2009 their specific weight in export equaled 12,3%. The share of production of agro-industrial complex made 2,2%. Other articles of export in the sum make about 10%, thus the share of production of manufacturing industry practically doesn't change and remains at the lowest level: 4% - for the chemical industry and 1–2% - for cars and the equipment [41].

It should be noted that the leisure standard statement in science about "a damnation of natural resources", in our opinion, isn't always applicable to the countries having rich natural gift. Everything depends on strategy, a measure and policy of their use as important potential in the interstate relations, preservation of the national sovereignty and carrying out domestic social policy. In this plan domination of a raw component at a certain historical stage of formation of the young sovereign states is objectively justified and rather rational strategy. Income from realization of raw material resources in the most difficult years acts as "safety cushion" for our economy, providing performance by the state not only the social obligations, but also allowing to carry out development programs. So was and in hard the 90th, and during the last universal economic crisis. Natural resources, certainly, served for Kazakhstan as a launch pad for economic growth, give the chance to lay the foundation for the accelerated diversification and increase of competitiveness of national economy.

Having moved forward in a row dynamically developing and comparable on specific indicators of economic potential with Russia and Belarus, the republic personifies for today itself as one of investment attractive regions on the former Soviet Union.

Gross domestic product per capita on the independent states of the CIS in 2009, according to CIA USA



























































Natural resources, certainly, served for Kazakhstan as a launch pad for economic growth. But objectively I ripened need of structural changes for national economy which would allow to realize prizes from possession natural riches by development of own high-tech industries of production, reduction of import of consumer goods, first of all production of agriculture and the food industry.

Raw narrow-mindedness finds deep dependence of our economy on import of hi-tech goods, the equipment. In the face of cardinal tasks of the Program of industrial and innovative development of Kazakhstan for 2010 - 2014 and "Strategy – 2020" with all gravity dependence of all economy on the external capital was found. The raw model of economy during crisis showed low opportunities of its adaptation to global risks. It is a consequence of undeveloped structure of economy, when there is no spheres and branches, except for oil, metals and grain, competitive to the developed market economies. At the first stage of modernization and innovative development (2010 - 2014) the most problem factor is a limitation of average and long-term resources that constrains not only possibilities of direct financing of large and significant objects of the program of industrialization, but also investment opportunities for stimulation of innovations in the sphere of fundamental science and research and development.

The program of the forced industrial and innovative development, setting as the purpose diversification of all Kazakhstan economy and its conclusion in a row the moderately developed countries of the world, solves strategically fatal problem. At the same time scientific and a wide circle notes insufficient transparency, an administrative involvement and a document zadannost. It was presented and approved without participation in discussion and offers of a wide range of scientific community, financiers, economists, an asset of top managers and experts. Over the Program as the fundamental document, experts and scientists with alternative opinion and a position had to work. Moreover, the such programs having paramount value for the country, it was necessary to accept not only at the level of the government which actually acts at the same time as the customer and the performer, but also, without fail, with an extensive discussion and the statement at the level of RK Parliament as the legislative document. So, in the rank of the law five-year development plans of a national economy of the USSR and federal republics were accepted. In this case would be very opportunely and formally reanimiruyemy institute of strategic planning. Even the list of the first hundreds enterprises and the objects put into operation for 2010-2014, looks rather unsystematic where it is difficult to distinguish that treats the category industrial, and that – innovative productions. So approximately the first Program of industrial development calculated on 2003-2015 was accepted also.

Scientific validity of the main basic indicators of the Program raises serious doubts, behind each of which there have to be serious scientific calculations and calculations which in aggregate have to testify to scientifically reliable work on justification of the program of industrial and innovative development of the republic. According to tasks of the Program of industrial and innovative development the vector of development of economy of Kazakhstan has to be displaced in the direction of consecutive and balanced growth not only extracting, but also processing, innovative and technological and social sectors. Gradual withdrawal from domination of export of the raw raw materials towards productions and spheres with a high value added, decrease in dependence of the country from import of technologies and the goods which production can quite be carried out own forces, first of all production of oil processing and petrochemistry, metallurgy, and also the food is put by the purpose.

The transition model from level of extracting economy to industrial innovatively level with implementation of structural reforms in economy, undoubtedly, has to be based on high-performance advanced technology, technology knowledge-intensive, innovative. Absence in the republic of necessary scientific base, own information and technological and developmental implementation centers entirely defined technological dependence of the country on import that extremely narrows innovative base of industrialization. There was a number of acute problems in the course of formation of new branches, modernization of the operating. Many of them are overloaded with outdated, backward equipment and the equipment. It is especially characteristic for the operating enterprises of mechanical engineering and metal working, metallurgy, a number of mining objects where wear of fixed assets reaches 60–80%.

Levels of profitability in RK industry, (%)[43]















Production of crude oil







Production of non-ferrous metals







Production of iron ore







Ferrous metallurgy







Production of non-ferrous metals







Pulp-and-paper, publishing







Production of coke, oil products and nuclear materials







machine industry







Production and distribution of the electric power, gas and water







Production of rubber and plastic products







Coal mining







Production of finished metal products







Production of foodstuff







Production of skin, products from skin and footwear







Processing of wood and production of products made of wood







Textile and sewing







Chemical industry







Unfortunately, in a pursuit of the low prices businessmen buy the dismantled outdated equipment, for example, in the Republic of Korea, Germany and some other countries. At accruing import rates and efficiency of industrialization, modernization and competitiveness level decrease. Similar pseudo-modernization becomes burden for productions, interferes with their development. Intensive leaving, updating of the fixed assets, the accelerated depreciation – time command, a key of increase of profitability and efficiency.

Apparently, profitability in raw, extracting branches is high, decreasing in the processing, consumer branches making a basis of real economy. The same pronounced tendency on economy of Russia is noted by the known economist, the director of Institute of Europe N. Shmelev: "… Main defect of the Russian economy for today: in the world average rate of return on the capital of 9%, and at us from 25% to 250% and above. All know, in whose pockets this profit settles" [44]. It is known, Kazakhstan in the world of globalization positioned itself as the raw region, exporting oil, metals and rare-earth elements. Oil production in 2010 reached 85 million t at level of profitability of nearly 145%, and by 2020 the boundary of exported oil seems at the level of 150 million t. Bail to that prospects of development of the Caspian shelf and Kashagan in the Western Kazakhstan and an exit on oil production approximately on the 7th place in the world. КазТАГ reports that Kazakhstan annually gains income from oil export in the sum over 24 bln. dollars, referring to the Arab EmiratesBusiness edition (on the sum of volume of extracted oil on the world price) which generally join into accounts of branches of the foreign companies which have redeemed the Kazakhstan fields for nothing. Moreover – on bank accounts in offshore zones of the Kazakhstan business elite. Kazakhstan a maximum receives 10% of these sums, or 2,4 billion dollars in the form of scanty taxes and other payments. Over the last 10 years in National fund a little more than 26 bln. dollars arrived, and the proceeds from sales of oil make, by the estimates, over 250 bln. dollars. On other Kazakhstan resources – gas, metals, uranium and so forth at the average world tax loadings the country could have annually not less than 40 bln. dollars a year.

Unresolved problem in the republic there is oil refining depth, first of all increase of fractions of an exit of oil products. Modernization of three large oil refineries is unfairly tightened. Volumes of oil refining lag behind rates of production and make about 12%. In Russia this indicator reached 50% that defines its competitive advantage with the adjacent Kazakhstan region. The share of export of oil products concerning oil export in 2008 made only 4,6%. These indicators defining efficiency of branch, can be significantly increased.

Mining and metallurgical branches with level of profitability of 43-88% in understanding of the leadership of Kazakhstan – one of the main engines of economy of Kazakhstan. They export to 95% of the production. Indicator similar to oil. Mining and metallurgical branch – one of quickly being restored: in 2010 growth of indexes of physical volume on the majority of types of production, especially on production of iron ore, manganese, gold refined is observed. But it generally – production, instead of production of advanced processing. We have no steel for automotive industry, absolutely not enough primary aluminum. The mining and metallurgical branch of Kazakhstan remains in many respects raw.

Almost zero or negative profitability production of foodstuff, the chemical industry have, branches of light industry. Textile and clothing industry provide only 10% of requirement of domestic market. Light industry in the advanced countries traditionally forms the lion's share of the budget. In the republic the branch without strategy of development is neglected. In Soviet period light industry of the republic gave out 15% of an industrial output, and its share in the budget exceeded 20%. (Japan, Korea) concedes branch in the developed countries only to automotive industry. In Turkey light industry gives out 10% of gross domestic product and fills 40% of the budget of the country. Nearly 90% of employees of the enterprises of light industry – the woman (a serious social problem). By the end of 2008 the specific weight of branch in gross domestic product of Kazakhstan decreased to 0,5%. There is a system destruction of branch with loss of army of skilled workers. It actually the deepest system crisis. The republic possesses unique raw material resources (cotton, wool, skins), but on essentials completely depends on import. And demand for production of light industry steadily grows. The market is entirely given to import (generally to the Chinese consumer goods) without payment of due customs payments (0,6 euros for kg), without the safety and origin certificate. Generally this production counterfeit, forged, illegal. Deliver production with a high value added, and the republic currency, result of work of hundreds thousands population is taken out to other countries. The outlined cluster in branch on fabrics, jersey, x / to a yarn, initiated in the recent past group of experts of Harvard (USA), appeared in oblivion, as well as some other loud undertakings in a train of reanimiruyemy branches and productions. As a whole worldwide light industry – one of the most priority, for this market fight. In Kazakhstan it even dropped out of priorities of the Program of the forced industrialization. The problem important also is urgent for the decision.

Remembering almost complete dependence of the program of modernization and updating of the enterprises from a transfer of foreign technologies, the responsible task on an active transfer of the best technologies providing high efficiency of work, and their adaptation to our productions is set. At the same time put-forward tasks of adaptation of modernization of the delivered technologies by domestic institutes, design offices aren't absolutely clear. Here it is necessary to pay attention to the course "active transfer of the best technologies … and their adaptation to our productions" [45].

First, in our opinion, it will be not "the best technologies, and usual technologies of mass, mass production, probably, even close to removal, if not not laid off. And more "technological" are usually preserved by the law and aren't subject to export abroad. The knowledge-intensive countries won't begin to sell new development of future sources of their riches and safety. Further it isn't absolutely clear that their adaptation (modernization, operational development) to our productions" means "…. In the same row a task of "high-quality improvement" delivered technologies forces of domestic institutes, design offices. What level of technical training there have to be domestic institutes how modernization of the transfer equipment will be provided? In what all this will manage to the budget, the enterprise? And in principle, whether it is necessary to deliver similar technologies which demand "handicraft" "high-quality" improvement by our domestic institutes. Besides it must be kept in mind the general technological backwardness of CIS countries: from hundred leaders, the breakthrough scientific and technological directions in the world even Russia, with its rather solid scientific and technological potential isn't the leader at least one of them. What to speak about Kazakhstan from it actually "interned" to level of dissertation works of PhD science.

As it is reasonably noted in article "Why Innovations Slip", "… the real innovative economy, economy of knowledge is under construction first of all on the basis of achievements of own science, realization of its results in the form of opening and inventions which are put by scientific practice in a basis of the industry and are aimed at release of demanded production" [46]. Though in Kazakhstan for today the unique way of modernization – import of technologies from abroad. Not less complex challenge – to estimate and master foreign technologies, to know their direction at the ocean of the world systematized knowledge, to take progressive projects from its depths, to create at the expense of them the basic scientific capital. It is necessary to represent accurately for what these technologies where to use them and what from them are bought return is expected. All this hardly on forces to clerks-officials from any state institutes. Though they and officially are called as national funds of welfare, investments and innovations. Therefore the prepared scientific shots, to especially young independent states, are necessary as in the sphere of fundamental science, and research and development.

At the entry of the countries of the Customs union (Russia, Kazakhstan and Belarus) in members of the WTO will essentially change rules, an order and standards of the international trade relations within this organization. Internal customs regulation of the HARDWARE will be overcome by rules and requirements of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and each of the countries of the HARDWARE will adhere to the general installation of the WTO. The Russian Federation for certain won't adhere to the coordinated general duties, tax loadings, privileges, tariffs within the HARDWARE. Within the WTO each country will be focused on the standard standards and rules and to pursue benefits of the country. Certainly the intercountry competition at the level of multinational corporation will increase also and respectively requirements to quality of delivered goods, level of design and their consumer properties will increase. In these conditions it is impossible to hope for free sale of production of member countries of the HARDWARE within the former domestic market, calculated on 170 million. consumers of 3 countries. And – Russia, Kazakhstan and even less so Belarus will be focused on the European standard and to seek for adjustment and expansion of economic relations directly with EU countries (The European union). In these conditions and China which takes new boundaries of areas of innovations, will increase in every possible way competition and quality of the innovatively updated goods on internal and foreign markets.

Developing difficult conditions of trade relations urgently will lay down a question of new approach to model of innovative development of Kazakhstan, is more true than industrial and innovative development. In the republic experience of organizational management by economic, scientific and technical and innovative progress of "Asian tigers", especially Malaysia, Singapore, and in recent years – Finland is in the last decade tried on. Tracing of experience of the small and average countries showed the insolvency, especially at enough not scientific, superficial approach. First, Kazakhstan and the called countries are incomparable and incommensurable, even remotely aren't identical on natural and geographical, geostrategic, demographic, infrastructure conditions. The country with so extensive, dispersed and sparsely populated territory, with actually dot principle and monostructural development separate, economically incomparable on a level of development and nature of specialization of regions, undeveloped in the infrastructure plan and not having local skilled workers shots, besides at rather high general education level of the population – all these ambiguous conditions and factors represent that negative historical barrier which complicates a little complete management and management of economic system of the republic in aspect of realization in it any standard, unambiguous model of industrial and innovative development. Especially copyings of model of this or that country of Europe or Asia. The model of industrial and innovative development of Kazakhstan for certain has to be based on historical, natural and economic, geostrategic and multiethnic features of the country and an originality of certain large regions of Kazakhstan with a cluster integrated approach to development of branches of specialization in each of them. More similar on level of economic development, the structural and branch originality, sharply differing with the capacity of the integrated regions Russia doesn't copy and the more so doesn't seek to trace foreign experience. The only thing to what she aspires, is the historically caused strategic objective of rapprochement with EU countries and a perenimaniye of the European experience of the organization of economy, economical and strategic rapprochement and integration as models of the rational organization of economy. In this aspect attentive studying and use of experience of culture of the organization of production in Finland, especially at the level of small and medium business, and also had rapid development at a turn of the third millennium of the large innovative centers and the companies is quite possible.

As for the states of South East Asia, they have absolutely other geographical and mental conditions, they are deprived of a little tolerable potential of natural resources. South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, all countries of "four", are actually world harbor, have the largest ports opened on the World Ocean – the centers of the world trade, the most favorable SEZ, the center of financial assets of world banks. And Singapore – actually the state corporation, is more right the city-state that allowed to develop unique model of management of this most difficult system on tiny in comparison with Kazakhstan the geographical patch. Similar management in the conditions of our republic neither on initial base, nor on the center of the centers of innovations, financial, industrial facilities, the scientific centers aimed at the solution of problems of the unique city-state it is definitely impossible. To the government Li Chuen-Yu and to his followers, using the last achievements of the fifth technological way in combination with methods of state regulation it is possible to achieve impressive results. Certainly, Kazakhstan has no similar initial conditions and opportunities, and attempt to repeat success of Singapore or states another territorially small and geographically favourably located at the World Ocean is almost impossible. Perenimaniye of separate achievements in planning and forecasting, stimulation of MSB, the organization of the large firms consortia, the separate scientific and implementation centers, etc. in relation to conditions of Kazakhstan of adequately attentive studying, especially creative application of the dot principle of the organization and management of unique production, financial structures with further expansion on their base of a cluster technological chain of productions. But copying as a whole experience of the organization and management of economy of the specified states as complete systems with essentially other than Kazakhstan conditions and factors of reproduction process, external and internal conditions of formation of the main paradigms of economic growth, in our opinion, doesn't correspond to the scientific and methodological principles of the organization and comparability of national economic systems. Another matter - the joint venture organization with advanced subjects of the world market or state-private investments with release of hi-teck of production for a covering of internal demand and an exit to a foreign market. And in this case definition of priorities, instead of simple introduction of dot innovations out of communication and a place in a chain technologically klasterno the interconnected productions is important.

The program of the forced industrial and innovative development of Kazakhstan is aimed at the solution of the most difficult landmark task on reorientation of economy on transition model from level of extracting raw economy to innovative industrially type. Despite objective conditionality of historically developed starting level of structure with domination of a raw component transition to innovative industrially development with orientation to high technologies and services sectors is made. This policy, having provided the consecutive and balanced growth of technically diversified extracting companies and innovatively equipped processing productions, is a basis of modern real economy, increase of the Kazakhstan contents in its main units and segments. In it pledge of fixing of leadership of Kazakhstan not only in Central Asia, but also on the Euroasian space.

[1]АеА (Formerly the American Elektronics Assosiation), Cyberstates 2008, annual (copyriglt). Экономика. М., №8, 2008. с.95. Экономика. М., №6, 2009 с.5.

[2]Экономист. М., №11, 2010, с. 63.

[3]Кузык Б.Н. Яковец Ю.В. Россия -2050. Стратегия инновационного прорыва. М.: Экономика. 2004, с. 169.

[4]О. Сухарев. О приоритетной политике модернизации. Экономист. М., №3, 2010, с.20. "Курсив". Казахстан. 5.05.2011 г.

[5]Экономист. М., 2009, №3

[6]Сверхзадача для модернизации. Казахстанская правда. 3.02.11.

[7]Сверхзадача для модернизации. Казахстанская правда. 3.02.11.

[8]Сверхзадача для модернизации. Казахстанская правда. 3.02.11.

[9]Е.Примаков. Россия на перепутье. Выступление на заседании "Меркурий клуба" Аргументы неделi. М., 10.02.11.

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[11]Деловая неделя. Казахстан. 13.08.2010.

[12]Сверхзадача для модернизации. Казахстанская правда. 3.02.11.

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*В Казахстане уровень инновационной активности - это показатель статистики, который рассчитывается один раз в год Агентством статистике РК.

[14]Деловая неделя. Казахстан. 13.08.10.

[15]Деловой Казахстан. Казахстан. 25.03.11.

[16]Курсивъ. Республиканский деловой еженедельник. 25.11.10.

[17]О соотношений государственных накоплений и иностранных инвестиций. Пути выбора по странам. Из материалов IVАстанинского форума. Казахстанская правда. 4.05.11. и 15.05.11.

[18]Международная конференция "Развитие инновационной экономики в странах СНГ в условиях глобальной модернизации". Казахстанская правда. 1.06.11.

[19]Набиуллина Э., министр экономического развития РФ. Приоритеты деятельности на 2008г. и на среднесрочную перспективу. Экономист. М., № 5, 2009.

[20]Рассчитано с использованием данных из справочника «Важнейшие социально-экономические показатели развития России (к пятнадцатилетию российских ре­форм): Альбом статистических таблиц». - М.: Институт экономики РАН. 2007. С. 233-234; а также информации Межгосударственного статистического комитета СНГ и Национального сборника статистики США.

[21]Экономист. М., №6, 2010, с.20.

[22]Деловая неделя. Казахстан. 30.07.2010. Наука в эпоху нанотехнологий, или почему у России и Казахстана нет времени на медленные темпы.

[23]Материалы международной конференций экономистов "Будущее Российской и мировой экономики". Известия.1.03.11.

[24]Курсивъ. 14.04.11.

[25]С.Глазьев. Какая модернизация нужна России?  Экономист. М., №8. 2010.

[26]«Московский комсомолец». 1-8. -12. 2010г.

[27]Республика. 15.10.2010г.

[28]Экономист. М., №8, 2010 г.

[29]Экономист. М., №8, 2010г.

[30]По материалам Фонда «Политика» // Известия. 15.07.2010.

[31]А. Дынкин. Нефть, бриллианты и мозги – главная ценность по всему миру // Известия. 13.03.2010.

[32]  Там же.

[33]МВФ. Научный доклад о перспективах роста мировой экономики // Деловой Казахстан. Республиканская экономическая газета. 20.01.2010. http: wwwdrnews.kz.

[34]А. Шохин. Инновации против модернизации // Известия. 25.03.2010.

[35]Н.А. Назарбаев. «Новое десятилетие – новый экономический подъем – новые возможности Казахстана». Асьана, 2010.

[36]По данным Агентства по статистике РК. Материалы МЭБП РК.

[37]По материалам Четвертого инвестиционного саммита, организованного ФНБ «Самрук-Казына» и InternationalGeraldIribine. 3-4 июня 2010. «МК» в Казахстане. 9-16.06.2010.

[38]А. Лифшиц. Построить финансовопровод // Известия. 18.03.2010.

[39]Стратегические ориентиры экономического развития России. М., 2010.

[40]О состоянии науки и техники в России. Научный доклад. М., 2009.

[41]По материалам Госкомстата РК.

[42]Аргумент неделi. Москва, 4-10.02.2010 г

[43]По данным Агентства РК по статистике

[44]«МК»-Казахстан. 9.06.2010.

[45]Казахстанская правда. АО «Национальный инновационный фонд». 17.03.2010.

[46]Почему буксуют инновации. В развитии науки Казахстан рискует безнадежно отстать // Литер. Наука недели. 22.04.2010. 


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