Home History of Kazakhstan Kazakhstan in the Soviet Union Postwar Kazakhstan (1946-1970) Industry development.

Industry development.

01 August 2013
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Having the diversified industry, the republic after war started realization of measures for transfer of a national economy to peace rails and significant increase in production of civil production. The volume of capital investments in a national economy only in one year of the fourth five-years period almost exceeded expenses in 1941 — 1945, including on the industry — by 1,2 times twice. Sharply capital investments in branch on production of commodities (by 1,47 times) increased. Kazakhstan became one of basic bases in recovery of victims of war of areas where from the republic send metal, raw material resources, fuel, construction materials, industrial goods and the food, breeding cattle and seeds. The industrial enterprises, long time working for needs of the front, switched over to release of peace production. There was a reorganization of technological processes, adjusting, overhaul of cars and the whole production knots. New forms of production communications between the enterprises were established. Many of them passed to new specialization or came back to the former.

The enterprises of the heavy industry were under construction. Six new coal mines, Karaton and Munayla's crafts became operational, construction of the Kazakh steel works came to the end, the capacity of the Aktyubinsk plant of ferroalloys increased, the first stage of Karatausky mining and chemical combine entered into a system. The power on local fuel developed. Electric power development in 1950 reached 2,6 billion kw. h. against 0,6 in 1940.

Have further development of branch of the light and food industry. The range of consumer goods, production of food extended, their quality improved. Capital investments in the food industry for 20% exceeded the volume of the means mastered for two pre-war five-years periods, and its gross output increased for 60% and the pre-war level of production of main types of foodstuff was considerably surpassed.

Preconditions for growth of economic capacity of Kazakhstan in the 50th when measures for strengthening of material base of a national economy, involvement in economic circulation of new resources, to increase of a technological level of production were carried out were created. But operezhashy rates the branches making raw materials and fuel, to the detriment of branches of the light and food industry (about 9/10 capital expenditure in the industry was aimed at the development of branches of group "A") developed. In 1951 — 1955 the absolute volume of investments in the industry was more, than in 1941 — 1950 by 2,3 times, and industrial capital construction only in one 1960 exceeded the corresponding expenses for all fourth five-years period almost by 1,4 times. Entered into a system of nearly 700 enterprises, including: Ust Kamenogorsk zinc-lead комбин ат, the Dzhezkazgan concentrating factory, the Ust Kamenogorsk and first stage Bukhtarminsky hydroelectric power stations on Irtysh, the Karaganda GRES-2, Sokolovsko-Sarbaysky mining and processing works. New coal areas accustomed (Saran, Churubay-Nur, Shakhan), was entered the first large coal mine on the Ekibastuzsky field. B1960 of in Kazakhstan was got 32,3 million t of coal against 17,3 million t in 1950. In 1960 in the republic 10,6 billion kW.ч were made. the electric power against 2,6 billion kWh. in 1950. At the same time sharply construction of power lines and distributive networks lagged behind that considerably reduced efficiency of electrification of the republic.

In the 60th in Kazakhstan unprecedented earlier industrial construction, thus in the republic, owing to pronounced raw character of its economy was carried out, mining industry branches have primary development. And though existence and development of primary branches of the industry were supported not. production intensification, and mainly at the expense of increase in capital investments, input of new capacities, nevertheless in basic, especially in raw branches of the republic of stagnation it wasn't observed. Only for 1961 — 1965 in a national economy of the republic it was mastered capital investments more, than for all previous years of the Soviet power, thanks to what the industrial capacity of the republic удвоился11. Became operational 729 large industrial enterprises and 535 shops. In the second half of the 60th were put into operation 445 more large enterprises and shops, hundreds plants and factories are reconstructed and technically reweaponed.

According to accruing participation of the republic in all-union division of labor have the accelerated development ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, oil and gas, chemical and petrochemical, there was a number of new industries on production of the titan, magnesium, alumina, cast iron, coke, synthetic rubber, cranes, the electric motors, new drawing camps and forge and press cars, asbestos, etc.

Ferrous metallurgy became one of leading and perspective industries of Kazakhstan. The Sokolovsko-Sarbaysky mining and processing works that created a reliable source of raw materials for steel works of Ural and other enterprises of the country entered into a system. At combine carried out a lot of work on enrichment of ores and industrial production of high-quality iron ore pellets. In 1970 in the republic 18,2 million t were extracted. iron ore that by more than 3 times exceeded level of 1960. The Karaganda iron and steel works became the largest enterprise USSR with a full metallurgical cycle. The combine made special profiles of hire, high-quality steel and cast iron. The first stage of Ermakovsky plant of ferroalloys with production of ferrosilicium entered into a system. All this led to significant increase in specific weight of Kazakhstan in all-union production of ferrous metals. The republic won first place in the country on production of chromite ores, the third on production of iron and manganese ores, an outgrowth a republic role in production of steel, hire, ferroalloys.

Nonferrous metallurgy has further development. The Tishinsky mine and zinc plant on Leninogorsk the polymetallic combine, the mines No. 55 largest in the country and No. 57 of the Dzhezkazgan mining and metallurgical combine were put into operation; the complex of aluminous production of Pavlodar Alumina Plant and the Ust Kamenogorsk Titanium-magnesium works reached initial design capacities. Capacities Ust Kamenogorsk zinc-lead and Balkhash mining and metallurgical combines were expanded.

The accelerated rates the oil-extracting industry developed also. Thanks to introduction in operation of fields Korsak, Tanatar, the Abyss level of production of oil in 1965 made 3 million t. Further development of branch was connected with the peninsula of Mangyshlak which became one of large oil regions of the Soviet Union, in 1970 oil production here exceeded 10 million t. The complex technical and transport challenges connected with production and transportation of high-paraffinic mangysh-Lak oil, of introduction of progressive ways of operation of fields, sharp increase in a gushing way of oil production were successfully solved.

Existence of the richest natural riches nominated Kazakhstan to one of leading places in the country on development of the chemical industry, especially mineral fertilizers. By the end of a semiletka "Karatau's" combine became the supplier of phosphorus-containing raw materials largest in the country at whom four superphosphate plants worked: one — in Kazakhstan, the others in the republics of Central Asia. At the Dzhambul superphosphate plant design capacity of superphosphate shop was completely mastered, the ammophos shop started working. The South of Kazakhstan in the shortest terms turned into the largest base of the country on production of yellow phosphorus and the difficult high-concentrated fertilizers. In 1963 the second turn of the Aktyubinsk plant of chromic connections that allowed to increase output almost by 3 times became operational. Workers and specialists of the SK Karaganda plant in a short space of time mastered the capacity of shop of synthetic rubber. The first shops of the Guryev chemical plant became operational. In 1959 in Chimkent the hydrolytic plant started working. In 1963 the Chimkent shinoremontny plant was started up, shinoremontny plants in Tselinograd, Kustanai, Karaganda, Pavlodar are constructed.

In the 60th cooperation of the enterprises of the chemical industry with other branches, in particular the metallurgical has broad development. In 1963 shops of sulfuric acid at Balkhash mining and metallurgical combine and at the Chimkent lead plant were started up. At the Karaganda steel works coke-chemical production has development. All this considerably strengthened the base of big chemistry in Kazakhstan. In 1970 Kazakhstan made in the country the most part of yellow phosphorus, 40% of chromite salts, 20% of polyethylene of the low pressure, over 10% of sulfuric acid.

Successfully the power industry developed in the republic. In 1961 — 1965 such powerful power plants, as the Karaganda GRES-2 (capacity of 600 thousand kW), the Peter and Paul combined heat and power plant (250 thousand kW), Almaty GRES-2 (200 thousand kW), Bukhtarminsky hydroelectric power station (600 thousand kW), etc. were constructed and put in operation. In the second half of the 60th electricity generation increased by 1,9 times, holiday of heat increased twice. B1970 of was developed 34,6 billion kWh of the electric power that equals to nearly four plans of GOELRO. Since the beginning of a five-years period 90 thousand km of power supply networks, and 85 thousand from them — for agriculture are constructed. Twice level of the centralized power supply of the objects, the reached nearly 76% increased.

Creation of the Seva-ro-Kazakhstan integrated power system was the main results of work of energy drinks. In 1970 into a system of the operating entered the third 300 thousand kW power unit on Ermakovsky state district power station, the hundred-thousandth heating turbine at the Ust Kamenogorsk combined heat and power plant.

The coal industry has considerable development. For 1959 — 1965 in the republic it was entered capacities on 19,5 million t. Production of being coked coals increased by 68%, its volume made 11044 thousand in 1965. Continuously open-pit mining extended. Since 1954 the Ekibastuzsky field began to be developed unique on a moshchnost of coal layer. In 1965 production volume in the pool made 14,3 million t of coal. By 1970 on the Karaganda and Ekibastuzsky pools coal mining reached 61 million t a year, from them 41% were extracted by the most progressive, open, way.

The mechanical engineering of Kazakhstan specialized on service of such leaders of branches of a national economy of the republic, kakselsky economy, mining, chemical and oil industry. The tractor plant which has become a basis of own tractor construction of the republic became operational. Specialized sites on release of parts to agricultural cars entered into a system and new moshchnost at Kazakhselmash plant, release of new cars and the equipment, works providing mechanization in field husbandry and animal husbandry was mastered.

At the same time the mechanical engineering in the republic developed insufficient rates, its specific weight increased in the total amount of industrial production with only 10,4 in 1961 to 10,6% in 1970 Kazakhstan made machine-building production of very limited nomenclature and in the volume insufficient for a covering of needs of the republic. In the 60th the need of the republic for cars, devices and an obrudovaniye for 72% was satisfied at the expense of import from other republics, import of production of mechanical engineering exceeded export by 8,5 times. In the republic there were no the enterprises making highly profitable end products — devices, cars, electrotechnical products, cars and the equipment.

In light industry I entered into a system of the large enterprises operating a row, including Almaty cotton combine, the Dzhambul tanning and shoe combine. By 1970 light industry of the republic made about 16% of all volume of an all-republican industrial output. However output by the enterprises of light industry of a processing profile grew quicker, than sewing, knitted, shoe therefore production of light industry in the republic was almost twice less, than on the average about the country.

In the food industry only in the second half of the 60th 48 new enterprises were constructed and put into operation. Nevertheless in 1970 only 7% of the fixed industrial and production assets and 17% fell to the share of the food industry from the total amount of industrial production that was much less, than as a whole about the country.

Much increased volumes of capital construction since the beginning of the 60th demanded creation of base of the construction industry. Formation and development of production of the national teams of ferroconcrete designs and details and the cement industry became a basis for transition to construction by high-speed industrial methods. If in 1955 in the republic there were only two low-power cement works with annual production of cement of 365 thousand tons, in 1965 five plants — Karaganda, Aktyubinsk, Semipalatinsk, Ust Kamenogorsk and Chimkent worked. Production of cement made 4037 thousand tons, or in 11 times more, than ten years ago.

The Chimkent and Ust Kamenogorsk plants equipped with modern equipment were especially powerful. The construction of a large number of plants, shops and ranges on production of ferroconcrete designs, panels and details began. In the large regional centers in the 60th combines of large-panel housing construction were created, the Karaganda and Semipalatinsk plants of asbestos-cement products and the Chimkent combine of asbestos-cement designs entered into a system. But to production of sheet glass, a soft roof, pottery, polymeric and other progressive construction materials it wasn't paid sufficient attention.

But in development of capital construction there was a number of the problems caused by domination of a command control system of economy. Disproportions between its large volume and limited means for its implementation were the main lack of capital construction, the numerous facts of low-quality performance by the design organizations of working drawings and estimates, technological violations took place. Construction developed on an extensive basis, terms of a construction of objects and the enterprises exceeded standards, the volume of incomplete construction from year to year increased.


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