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Kazakhstan after falling of imperial autocracy.

01 August 2013
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Overthrow of the imperial autocracy in the result of February bourgeois- democratic revolution in 1917 , has fundamentally changed the balance of political forces in Russia . The rebels workers, soldiers and peasants established their own authorities - Councils . The bourgeoisie and the bourgeoisified landowners using the victory of the revolution took power into their own hands and formed a provisional government and its agencies on the ground, including in the national borderlands .

In Kazakhstan, to hold dominion and give a "democratic form" to separate state and government agencies , the Provisional Government modified their name, without significantly changing the social and economic and national policies of the state, and put in charge of provinces and districts commissioners from among former imperial officials belonging to Cadet Party and the Socialist Revolutionaries , and also individual members of the national- liberal Kazakh intellectuals (A. Bukeyhanov , M Tynyshbayev , A. Beremzhanov , etc.).

The leader of Kazakh national intelligence Bukeikhanov A., who was at the time of a victory of February Revolution in Minsk, addressed to "Kazakhs - free citizens of new Russia." In it, in particular, it was spoken: "... It is necessary to organize Kazakhs to support new system and new government. We need to work in contact with all nationalities who supported the new system. Our motto - unity and justice. Hastily discuss the land issue. Our motto-"democratic republic" and the land of the one who receives income from its cattle breeding and agriculture, " 25-28 March, as a delegate, he took part in the VII Congress of the Cadets. Speaking in the discussion of the agrarian question, A. Bukeikhanov demanded the return of the Kazakhs illegally taken from them lands.

The thesis of " the Kazakhs to organize ... " soon reflected in the creation of a network of regional and district committees of the Kazakh as the third force , along with the bodies of the Provisional Government and local councils in the political Spector posleFevralya Kazakhstan in 1917 , and later evolved into the idea of ​​the organization of the Kazakh National autonomy within the Russian Democratic Republic. The thesis of " the immediate return of illegally confiscated from the Kazakhs ( tsarist ) they land 'has evolved into the idea of ​​collecting all the indigenous Kazakh lands in the single Kazakh statehood.

On fundamental issues of social and political development after the February period, the leaders of the national- liberal movement sided with the Provisional Government. Because of this, they were faced with a negative attitude to the Soviets as organs, opposition to the Provisional Government .

This was the general picture of the socio - political environment in which turned the process of consolidation and grouping of different forces aspiring to power.

The revolution set in motion the entire population of Kazakhstan. Migrant edge in numerous telegrams and resolutions of meetings and gatherings , addressed to the Petrograd Soviet , expressed appreciation to the workers and soldiers of Petrograd, which overthrew the hated tsarist regime .

Petrograd , Moscow and other Councils , organized in the early days of the revolution , were strong enough to completely overthrow the Provisional Government and concentrate it in their hands , but their heads were inclined to compromise with the Provisional Government , and in the end the real power passed into the hands of latter.

Dual power reflected by the fact of occurrence of the internal contradictions of the February Revolution , the instability of the socio - political situation in the country and the inevitable transfer of all power or the Provisional Government , to protect the interests of the imperialist bourgeoisie and its allies, or to the Board, is a revolutionary- democratic government of workers and peasantry , ie the majority of the population suffering from social and national oppression.

In March 1917, in Kazakhstan were formed throughout the local authorities of the Provisional Government , provincial and district executive committees , reflecting the interests of entrepreneurs , merchants and officials.

So , March 4, 1917 bourgeois circles of Petropavlovsk , coupled with the right tip of the Socialist-Revolutionaries and Mensheviks formed a coalition committee of public safety , which includes the largest merchants of St. Peter and Paul Cheremiska County , Kazantsev, Nagatkin . March 3, 1917 in Kokchetav meeting of merchants and elected officials of the Coalition Provisional Committee and before the convening of the county Congress has entrusted him with duties of county government. March 5, 1917 in Semipalatinsk oblast executive committee was formed community organizations and the military. In the first days of March, the executive committee was formed in Ust -Kamenogorsk.

"Bulletin of the executive committee of the Semipalatinsk " March 9, 1917 reported the organization of district executive committees - local provisional government - Zaysan , Pavlodar and Kokpekty . The representatives of the bourgeoisie and the bureaucracy led governments in many other cities of Kazakhstan.

Faithful support of the Provisional Government in the regions and districts of Kazakhstan were so-called Cossack committees . Tatar , Uzbek , Uighur merchants who owned large stores and other commercial enterprises in many cities of Kazakhstan and united in the "Muslim ", " Tatar " and other committees and kurultais .

The local authorities of the Provisional Government in Kazakhstan , based on the kulaks , the upper part of the Cossacks and a baystva Kazakh village , supported by the political parties of the bourgeois and petty-bourgeois wing , continued to plunder the working people , and put on them the burden of the imperialist war.

The second rule in the country , including in Kazakhstan , were the Soviets of Workers ', Soldiers' and Peasants' Deputies , which is, by definition, Lenin , the revolutionary- democratic dictatorship of the workers and peasants, which was based not on the law enacted by the central state authority, and on the revolutionary seizure on the direct initiative of the masses snizu2 .

Soviets of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies in Kazakhstan appeared somewhat later than in the central areas - in March 1917 at the same time was a process of aggregation. Because of lower-than- organization of the workers and soldiers Soviets of Peasants ' Deputies appeared in May and June 1917

Dual power in Kazakhstan had specific features due to the socio- economic and political situation of the region, its multinational and largely petty bourgeois population , the location of the Siberian , Orenburg , Ural and Semirechensk Cossack troops.

Tips Kazakhstan since its inception have been internationalized , especially the Soviets of Workers ' and Peasants' Deputies. They were Russian , Kazakhs , Ukrainians , Tatars , Uighurs , Uzbeks , representatives of other nations. In the Soldiers' Councils were mostly Russian , Ukrainians, Tatars part . The leading role in most of the Soviets of Kazakhstan belonged to the petty-bourgeois parties, mainly the Socialist - Revolutionaries . This was due to the weakness and the paucity of the Bolsheviks, the lack of organization and political immaturity of the local workers, the low level of socio- economic development of Kazakhstan.

During the formation of the local organization of the Provisional Government and a wide network of councils in the province (March - early April 1917 ) between the bourgeoisie and the revolutionary forces of democracy existed a certain understanding, established tenuous agreement between the executive committees of the ( Provisional government agencies ) and local councils , which had a tendency to strengthen . Executive committees and Councils have been working together to destroy the imperial administration in the field, freed political prisoners and exiles tried to solve the urgent problems of the economy, have taken steps to return to Chinese refugees - members of the national liberation uprising in 1916 , etc. But the fragile agreement soon came to an end . The arrival of Lenin from exile , put forward by him in "April Theses" requirements and solutions , which took place shortly VII ( April) Conference of the Bolshevik charted a course into the open , uncompromising opposition party of the masses and the government, the executive committees and councils on matters of war and peace, the agrarian , national and state building .

Lenin believed that the dual power are merely a transitional moment in the development of the revolution, when she went on a conventional bourgeois-democratic revolution, but has not reached a "clean" the dictatorship of the proletariat and the peasantry " 3 . He explained the course of the Bolshevik Party in the development of the bourgeois -democratic revolution into the socialist slogan defining a new stage of the revolution : " All power to the Soviets! " - The implementation of which was to lead to the elimination of dual power and the establishment of absolute rule of the Soviets. This meant a violation of the fragile civil peace and the beginning of an open confrontation between the two powers , the Provisional Government and the Soviets.

The slogan of Lenin fell on fertile ground , as the difficulties caused by the war (hunger , high prices , the general devastation, strengthen social and national oppression ), all grew . This contributed to the rapid process of Bolshevisation Soviets and their transformation into the main instrument for the overthrow of the Provisional Government and the establishment of Soviet power.

This development has put in a difficult position of national- liberal movement . Its leaders in April and May 1917 had over Kazakhstan Kazakh regional and district conventions , where national elected provincial and district committees . Most supported the Provisional Government and the actions of local authorities , but at the same time sought to strengthen the influence of the Kazakh population of the region.

Members of the Kazakh congresses held in the spring of 1917 in Akmola, Uralsk , Orenburg, Semipalatinsk, Verne and other cities , led by the leaders of the national- liberal movement and discussing the agrarian and national questions, questions of nation-building , not yet been able to develop a program on these issues.

The representatives of the Kazakh people were appointed commissioners of the Provisional Government : Turgay in the area - A. Bukeikhanov , Seven Rivers - M. Tynyshpaev , Turkestan - M. Chokaev , but they could not solve the problems of the indigenous Kazakh population , since it is essentially the officials of the colonial administration .

Meanwhile, the war continues , anti-people policies of the Provisional Government a heavy burden fell on the shoulders of the workers. In the spring and summer of 1917 intensified the process of politicization of the entire population of Kazakhstan. Fresh impetus to the political life of the village and the villagers have returned to their homeland participants logistical work ( about 150 thousand), and front-line soldiers . Many of them came to the villages of politically literate, with a determination to fight for freedom. One of the participants in the rear works Zhusup Babaev, rejoining the Seven Rivers area of Kamenetz -Podolsk in the early summer of 1917 , he wrote : "We have brought in the villages hatred of the Provisional Government ... and the consciousness of the need to self- organization of the poor and laborers . We brought news of the ... Russian proletariat struggle for Soviet power "4. In early June 1917 through Pavlodar on the boat drove participants surround work that was supplied with a rifle , checkers and boepripasy5 .

June 26, 1917 the commander of the Turkestan Military District, ordered the garrison to all railway stations Kazalinsk committees , perovskite , Turkestan , Tashkent railway " to make a thorough osmotreshelonov native workers , taking away from them as firearms and cold steel ... Military supervisors and military convoy escorting passenger trains , pay special attention to the natives, the following works with front single order " 6.

In the spring and summer of 1917 among the Kazakh workers have the organization that brought together participants in the rear works, laborers unions and revolutionary- democratic youth organizations, which adjoined the Soviets of Workers ', Soldiers' and Peasants 'Deputies ' Association of the Union of Muslim workers of the Faithful " (Union laborers ) workers' Union of Dzharkent , Unions Muslim workers ( ITTIFAK ) created in the southern regions of Kazakhstan, were part of Turkestan .

After the February Revolution in some places there were youth organizations and clubs that brought together representatives of the students and teachers of aul ( mugalimov ) : The Board of democratic students - in Omsk, "Jas Kazakh" ( "Young Kazakh" ) - in Akmola, "Jas Zhurek" ( "Young heart" ) - on Spassky factory " Talap " (" desire ") - Petropavlovsk , " Zhanar " (" Light ") - in Semipalatinsk, " the Kazakh Union of Revolutionary youth" - in Merck Aulie -Ata district , etc.

In the beginning , most youth organizations set itself the cultural and educational challenges. But in the process of polarization of the political movement they have come close to solving the problems of class , social and political significance. With the development of the revolution among youth organizations joined to the Soviets , for example, "Jas Kazakh" led by S.Seifullin and " Revolutionary Union of Kazakh people " , led T.Ryskulov , others went to the leaders of the national- liberal intelligentsia.

Demonstration of workers , soldiers , sailors, 4-5 July 1917 in Petrograd was suppressed by the Provisional Government by force of arms . There was a direct threat to the civil war, with the prospect of defeat Petrograd Bolsheviks. July 7 was issued for the arrest of Lenin , the Bolsheviks began a crackdown on the front and the rear.

July 11, 1917 the CEC announced the provision of the Interim Government of unlimited powers , securing legislative support this elimination of dual power.

Under these conditions, after the events of July , Lenin established himself at the thought of the impossibility of a peaceful transition of power to the proletariat. The question was posed sharply : either victory voennoydiktatury to the end, or the victory of the armed uprising. At the same time , Lenin had emphasized that the armed uprising is possible only when the new revolutionary upsurge of the people, in the presence of a national crisis


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