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Science and scientific studying of Kazakhstan

With acceptance by Kazakhs of the Russian citizenship scientific studying of edge was included strongly into a sphere of the central state structures and various groups of researchers. In Kazakhstan it developed, though separate, a network of scientific institutions. One of them functioned at the expense of the state allocations, others appeared thanks to diligence of enthusiasts.

Rapprochement and interpenetration of cultures of Russia and the Kazakh people enriched finally a universal civilization with new opening, ideas and names. Communication with the advanced representatives of the Russian science promoted C.Valikhanov's formation as scientific world level. Many Russian researchers created the fundamental works on the basis of materials of the Kazakh folklore, music, an oral historiography, ethnography.

The first attempts of complex studying of Kazakhstan, made by Russia in XVIIIв. are connected with M.V.Lomonosova's name. He was the initiator of the organization of forwarding researches of the territory of the region and creation of its maps, promoted carrying out scientific searches in history, linguistics, economy and ethnography of Kazakhs.

In 1769 one of the first expeditions I headed P. S. Pallas. The route passed it through Simbirsk, Orenburg, Iletsk, Orsk, Yaitsky small town, Gurjev, Orenburg, Ufa. P. S. Pallas's work "Travel on different provinces of the Russian Empire" in three parts (SPb became result of expedition. 1773). B1769 — 1772 N. Rychkov carried out as a part of armies work on collecting data in the territory Karaturgaya, Turgaya, Tirsakkana, Ishim, fortresses Ust-Uysky, Krutoyarsky, Troitsk. Later there was its work "Day Notes of Travel of Captain N. Rychkov to Kyrgyz-kaysatsky Steppes in 1771." (1772).

Similar work was carried out and in the next years. She allowed to collect data on the most wide range of the problems connected with acceptance by Kazakhs of the Russian citizenship, trade, development of productive forces of edge, cattle breeding and agriculture, social structure of the Kazakh society and its political system.

Large result of studying of Kazakhstan the Russian scientists was issue of the book of A.I.Levshin "The description the Kyrgyz - Cossack, or Kyrgyz-kaysatsky hordes and steppes" in three parts (1832). The Kazakh perspective took an important place in работахВ. V. Velyami-is new-Zernov, I.V. Mushketov, V. V. Radlov, P. P. Semenova-Tyan-Shanskogo and many other.

Versatile activities for studying of Kazakhstan were developed by scientific organizations. B1867 of was open the Orenburg office of the Russian geographical society where cooperated A.Alektorov, I.Altynsarin, A.Dobrosmyslov, I.Kraft, etc. The office was engaged in studying of geography, history, ethnography, natural sciences and statistics of edge, published "Notes" and "News". At it the library which was constantly replenishing at the expense of an exchange of editions from other cities and the states worked.

In the second half of XIXV. agriculture Society, circle of fans of archeology and East history, Society of fans of natural sciences, anthropology and oriental studies, and also formed in 18% actively were engaged in studying of Turkestani edge. Turkestani department of RGO. In 1877 the West Siberian office of RGO, later — its Semipalatinsk section with which A.Kunanbayev cooperated was founded.

Ch.Ch.Valikhanov (1835 — 1865) became the outstanding researcher of new generation. Till 12 years Chokan studied at private school. Already then its abilities were shown. In the fall of 1847 Chokan arrived in Omsk military school where pupils received knowledge of many general education disciplines: geography, stories (Russia and general), to the Russian and western literature, bases of philosophy, zoology and botany, physics, mathematics, geodesy, construction art and architecture bases. Here he got acquainted with Pallas, Rychkova's works and other researchers. During stay in Omsk the indelible impression was made on it by a meeting with outstanding Russian writer F.M. Dostoevsky and his friend the democrat revolutionary S.F. Durov.

In 1853 after the termination of military school of C.Valikhanov direct on service in the Siberian Cossack army. Soon as the aide-de-camp it accompanied the governor general of Western Siberia Gasfort on a trip from Omsk to Zailiysky Ala Tau during which it collected and wrote down a large number of historical legends, legends and songs.

In the spring of 1856 in life of future researcher of the East there was the significant event which in many respects has defined further destiny — acquaintance to the outstanding scientist known for geographer P. P. Semenov, highly appreciated his scientific interests and directed them on studying of actual problems of oriental studies. The same year Chokan Valikhanov participated in two expeditions from Ala-Kulya to the Central Tien Shan, on the lake Issyk Kul; in Kuldzhu with a diplomatic assignment.

B1857 of Valikhanov makes again a trip to alatausky Kyrgyz where being among kocheviya, studied their life and customs, history, ethnography, oral national creativity. On this trip he wrote down separate parts of the Kyrgyz epos "Manas". Valikhanov paid special attention to Monuments of material culture of the people of the East. The remains of ancient irrigating systems, monuments of architecture, the ruins of the ancient cities found by it during expedition to Issyk Kul, led it to a conclusion about existence in former centuries in the territory Semirechya of settled life and existence of a number of the cities.

Contact with history of the next people helped to study ancient and medieval history of the Kazakh people. Having deeply analysed and having compared the material collected during the first expeditions, he came to a conclusion that "in the Middle Ages settled life here (in Kyrgyzstan and in the south of Kazakhstan) strongly extended in the Iliysky valley". During expedition to Issyk Kul, Valikhanov, along with scientific data, collected a big collection of antiquities. Result of trips were finished historical этногра-фические works: "The trip diary to Issyk Kul", "The western province of the Chinese empire and of Kuldzhi", "Notes about Kyrgyz". Valikhanov's scientific activity drew attention of the Russian geographical society which in February, 1857 elected him the full member.

The confidential trip to Kashgaria in 1858 when for the first time after Marco Polo and the Jesuit Geosa (1603) it visited this little-known country became a new stage of scientific activity of Chokan Valikhanova and wrote the well-known work: "About Altyshar's condition, or six east cities of the Chinese province of Nan Lu (Small Buharin) (1858 — 1859). " Work was highly appreciated by orientalists of Russia and beyond its limits and soon is published in English.

Severe conditions of travel, nervous tension and the deprivations which have met in a way, affected on health of the young scientist. Povozvrashcheny home C.Valikhanov gets sick. In 1860 on the Minister of War the researcher of Kashgaria comes to Petersburg where it was met as the brave traveler and the expert on the people of Central Asia and Kazakhstan, is awarded the order and пс in a rank.

Nondurable stay in Petersburg spiritually enriched Valikhanov and strengthened his democratic views. It plunged into a thick of public life and developed ш activity, Gener worked in Military and registration committee; staff, Asian department and Geographical общест a stavleniye of maps of Central Asia and East Turkestan, preparation for the edition of works of Ritter, cooperation in the encyclopedia edition (where for the first time there was its known article "Ablay"), studying of east manuscripts, lecturing on the East stories in the Russian geographical society — all this made the maintenance of his life in Petersburg. Professor A. N. Beketov, the editor "Notes of the Russian geographical society" have a great impact on Chokan during this period the orientalist, the diplomat and publicist E.P. Kowalewski, known scientists-orientalists V. V. Grigoriev, V. P. Vasilyev and V. V. Velyaminov-Zernov. Continued support and friendly arrangement the vice-president of Russkogogeografichesky society of Pct Semenov-Tyanshansky rendered Valikhanova. In Petersburg Valikhanov met again the friend F.M. Dostoevsky. Among his Petersburg friends there were poets A.N.Maykov and Y.P. Polonsky, brothers of Century of Page and N. S. Kurochkina, the societies "Earth and Will" consisting by members. Raznochinny literature broadened Wednesday horizons of the Kazakh scientist, helped it to understand better events of public life of Russia in the period of a revolutionary situation.

Reading literary and art and political magazines "Sovremennik", "Russkoye slovo", "Epokha", "Otechestvennye zapiski", "Vremya" by Valikhanov, etc., playing большуюроль in development of public interest to history and formation of historical views of the intellectuals, promoted the statement of democratic views of Valikhanov.

The humid Petersburg climate has a pernicious effect on здоровьеЧокана Valikhanova. He was compelled to leave the capital.

Having moved to Omsk, Valikhanov accepted direct in actions of the government for reorganization of local management of the steppe, brought a number of practical offers and recommendations. The main thoughts are stated to them in a number of the "Notes" given on imyavlasty: "About Moslem in the steppe", "About nomads Kyrgyz", "A note about judicial reform". In the spring of 1864 Valikhanov participates in Tchernyaev's expedition accession to Rossiiterritoriya Youzhny Kazakhstana was which purpose. Staff captain it served in a rank as the translator at the main command where, fulfilling official duties, promoted establishment of friendly vzaimootsheniye of the Russian authorities with local population, and also to the fair solution of disputes because of pastures between Kazakhs and Kyrgyz. But Chokan's activity in this field was short. In the summer of 1864. he was compelled to leave group, to come back in True, and then to go to Tezek's aul, the senior sultan of Kazakhs of a sort албан. Possibly, already Valikhanov couldn't transfer burden of a camp life to this period. In the letter to the father from Tezek's aul he wrote: "I was tired, there is no force, all dried, there were one bones, won't see light soon. I am not fated to see with my dear native any more and friends, there are for this purpose no means. This budetmy last letter. Farewell, I embrace all".

C.Valikhanov died in April, 1865 in Tezek's aul, in Kochen-Togan's natural boundary, at a foot of Altyn-Emelsky ridge.

Estimating Chokan Valikhanova's activity on behalf of the Russian geographical society and from scientists of Russia, large scientist-orientalist I.I.Veselovsky wrote: "As the brilliant meteor flew over an oriental studies field Chokan Chingisovich Valikhanov. The Russian orientalists unanimously recognized in the person of its phenomenal phenomenon and expected from it great and important opening about destiny of the tyursky people: but Chokan's premature death deprived of us these hopes. He died of a consumption, without having reached and 30-year age".

C.Valikhanov's scientific heritage covers a wide range of problems of Kazakhstan and other people, in the decision of everyone and them his mighty scientific talent was shown.

In the second half of XIX — the beginning of the XX century scientific life of the Kazakh society was enriched with M.-S. K.Babazhanov, K.Halidi, M. Chormanov, A.Baytursynov's creations, etc.

The graduate of the Orenburg military school M.-S. K.Babazhanov published a number of the historical and ethnographic articles devoted to problems of horse breeding, medical properties of koumiss, religious representations of Kazakhs, history monuments. K.Halidi's who was born in Ayaguz main work, Tauarikh хамса", published in 1910 the Kazan publishing house "Urnek" is ". It contains the analysis of the historical past of five people of the East — Uyghurs, Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Mongols, Chinese.

Sh. Kudayberdyev was widely educated person for the time. He knew some east languages, worked in library and archives of Istanbul and Paris. The circle of its scientific interests covered questions of history, philosophy, music, literature, religion. Sh. Kudayberdyev's historical views found the fullest expression in the book "Family Tree of Turkic Peoples, Kyrgyz, Kazakhs and Hansky Dynasties", issued in 1911. In the book the main data on Average childbirth жуза, dynasties of khans and the Turkic people of Asia are systematized.

Sh. Kudayberdyev highly appreciated a science role, knowledge in society and person life. He was elected the member of Semipalatinsk section of the West Siberian department of the Russian geographical society, made a hajj to Mecca.

The whole strip of history of the Kazakh culture, science and national education is connected with A.Baytursynov's name. He was born in an aul No. 5 of the Tosynsky volost of the Turgaysky district. B1886 — was trained 1891 in two-cool Russian-Kazakh school, in 1891 — 1895 — in the Orenburg teacher's seminary. Years of study were interfaced to numerous difficulties, material deprivations. Pedagogichssky activity Baytursynov began at aulny schools, then continued in two-cool schools of the Aktyubinsk, Kustanay and Karkaralinsky districts. As the teacher and educator Baytursynov deeply endured ignorance of the people. In familiarizing with education, science, culture he saw a way to freedom of the people. For participation in drawing up the petition I reign karkaralinsky group of the Kazakh intellectuals Ahmet Baytursynov working as the manager of Karkaralinsky two-cool school, it was arrested (July of 3909 g) together with the adherents. Eight months extrajudicially was in Semipalatinsk prison. After release to it allowed accommodation only outside Kazakhstan that was equated to the link. As for politically unreliable for Baytursynov police surveillance was established.

Since March, 1910 up to October revolution Baytursynov lived in Orenburg.

In 1900 in Petersburg its book "Kyryk Mysal" (Forty fables) — I.Krylov's fables was published in a translation into the Kazakh language and some own works written in the same spirit.

In 1911 in Orenburg there was the second book "Mas" (Mosquito).

In the same years it deals with issues of reform of the Kazakh alphabet, pedagogics, a technique, training, etc. C1913 of Baytursynov became the editor of the Kazakh newspaper. Baytursynov's articles concerning education, literatures, language acquainted readers with a cultural heritage of Kazakhs, called them for mastering by knowledge, spiritual improvement.

Since July, 1917 the Kazakh newspaper becomes official body of Alash party, idea and which program was supported by considerable part of the pre-revolutionary Kazakh intellectuals.

A.Baytursynov — one of the first among the Kazakh thinkers defined value and a place of Abay as poet, the philosopher, the scientist. I urged to analyse widely spiritual heritage and ideas "the chief poet of the Kazakh people". In education and culture he saw a decisive factor of social progress. In order that school education was up to the mark, he considered, three conditions are necessary: normal financing of school, providing pupils with the corresponding textbooks and manuals, preparation of highly skilled teachers.

Baytursynov's name gained wide popularity long before revolution. It represented the educated part of the Kazakh society.

The science of pre-October Kazakhstan, though reached certain results, didn't enter into life and a life of a general population.

Its many directions were at an origin stage. At a boundary of the XIX—XX centuries the scientific thought of the Kazakh society tested weights of colonial edge, the backward public relations.


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