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Revolt under leadership of Isatay Taymanov and Makhambet Utemisov

30 July 2013
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In national liberation fight of the Kazakh people the important place is taken by revolt under leadership of Isatay Taymanov and Makhambet Utemisov. In 1801 to Entre Rios of Volga and the Urals 5 thousand Kazakh farms headed by khan Bukey that began formation of the Internal (Bukeev) horde moved. By the end of the 30th in it about 20 thousand farms and 80 thousand people were already. Earth and pastures were distributed unevenly. For a short time 2/3 lands turned into private possession of the Kazakh feudal lords both the Russian landowners Yusupov and Bezbordko. The khan Dzhangir secured 400 thousand dessiatinas of the earth. Especially the relative of khan Karaul-hodzha Babazhanov not having a sultan title succeeded in it. It paid for the earth rented at landowners, and then at discretion collected a rent from those Kazakh auls to which allowed to graze cattle on tenantry, collected penalties, requisitions, various taxes, being covered with proximity to the khan.

The Ural army office withdrew the lands located on Big and Small Uzen and Vokrugkamysh-Samarsky lakes in favor of the Cossacks. To acute land crisis other important circumstance increased also: management of the Internal Horde and Younger zhuz adapted the imperial government for own interests. Distances were created, positions of distanochny chiefs are entered.

Lands on the Ural River the Ural Cossack army owned. To pass through the river and migrate to a coastal strip Kazakhs strictly had enough.

The first wave of performances passed in the Internal Horde in 1827 — 1829. The Kazakh auls came back to the Urals. Foreman Serkesh Zhaksybayev explained to the ataman of the Ural army to Borodino, "that as the transition reason to the Urals intolerable losses and oppressions serve from the khan; the tax from the people gathers several times in a year in incommensurable to justice and situation paying the size". Acute land crisis, tax burden, various cut-offs of the earth, feudal conflicts led in 1836 to revolt. Batyrs Isatay Taymanov and Makhambet Utemisov headed it.

Isatay Taymanov and Makhambet Utemisov both were from a dzhaiyk. E.P. Kowalewski wrote about Isatay: that it "the name rattled everywhere", among Kazakhs and Russians, from Volga to Ural.

Isatay was born in 1791. Uncle Zhabay Begalin has a great impact on its formation. In 1808 a sort of Isatay migrated to the Internal Horde. In 21 years he was appointed the foreman of dzhaiyks, gained skills of steppe life, patrimonial relationship and administrative service.

Makhambet Utemisov's poet was the next associate of Isatay Taymanov. I brought up his mother Kosuan. He knew Tatar and Russian languages. Happened in Khiva, I lived in Orenburg. M. Utemisov was familiar with the Russian writer and ethnographer V.I.Dall who served these years as the official on special instructions at the Orenburg governor general. The close relations were maintained by M. Utemisov with scientist-traveler G. S. Karelin serving in the Internal Horde and Orenburg.

In February, 1836 open fight of the Kazakh people against khan Dzhangir began. As occasion of Isatay Taymanov call in the Rate served. He refused to be, removed the auls from winterings and collected big camp of insurgents. On April 4, 1836 Manash approached to wintering khsn group led by Karaul-hodzha Babazhanov. From camp of the risen there arrived about 200 armed Dzhigits led by I.Taymanov. In hands it had a banner. Associates M. Utemisov, U.Tyulegenov, T.Usin, U.Usynov, etc. were a row. To avoid bloodshed, I.Taymanov suggested to turn outcome of the case by single combat. But neither Karaul-hodzha Babazhanov, nor other of his environment didn't accept a call. After week opposition Isatay Taymanov refused to wait for the answer. The group of insurgents returned to itself to camp. Isataya Taymanov's name as head of revolt became stronger in auls of different childbirth.

Then the khan and his environment went on slander. In time of barymta someone killed the old man shepherd. The organized investigation tried to prove participation of Isatay and his associates in this murder.

Isatay Taymanov well understood that Karaul-hodzha worked with the consent of khan Dzhangir, but observed all rules of east etiquette. About Karaul-hodzhu it was decided to make the complaint to the khan.

In 1836 and 1837 Isatay Taymanov used submission of complaints and petitions for exposure of policy of Dzhangir and his environment before peasants-sharua. Submission of the complaint petition was accompanied by procession. The first such procession in 1836 collected a large number of people. The khan Dzhangir was alarmed: I sent towards deputation. Isatay at a big congestion of people to the natural boundary Talubay on receipt I submitted the application. On behalf of the khan it was promised to consider all questions within 12 days, however it was made nothing. Tactics of behavior of Isatay Taymanov of justified: in the opinion of peasants the khan was shamed. The boundary commission informed on it: "When this concourse was in a way and as about it it learned, the khan, immediately made the order and destroyed it in the mediocre ways, without disturbing the administration. And though (khan) believes that now Taymanov's enterprises stopped this time, but it with the accomplice Makhambetom Utemisov, having shown once so improper example of the armed meeting, won't cease to disseminate in the people plans, maybe, uneasier and ill-intentioned for future time" 14.

In the fall Isatay Taymanov went round auls of various childbirth and urged to borrow under kochevka of the earth of the Ural Cossack army, to pass to Ural, i.e. to redistribution of the Cossack and baysky lands. From near and far places to Isatayu Taymanov addressed on the most various questions. Its real power grew: he disposed in Caspian part, resolved various administrative issues. Insurgents successfully beat off barym-that hansky envoys. When one of representatives of a hansky environment by B. Hudaybergenov organized attack on Kazakhs serkesh offices which supported insurgents, the group at once was sent to 270 people which ruined the house and Biy auls. During this period sultan Chukin called the region of insurgents republic


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