Ethnographic data from life of so-called backward nationalities of the present have also considerable value. They allow explaining better some parties of material and spiritual culture of the most ancient mankind. But the main information nevertheless gives the most abundant material of primitive society - stone tools.
The history of mankind is divided into large periods associated with the development of a socio-economic system. In archeology was developed its own periodization, according to which the history of mankind is divided into the era of stone, bronze, iron, and the middle ages. In turn, each of these above-mentioned is divided into periods and culture. The Stone Age is divided into three periods: paleolith, mesolith and neolith.
The era of ancient Stone Age is the time of formation of humanity and its economy – characterized by low levels of productive forces. Primitive economic activity consisted in use of ready-made products of the nature. The primitive person collected wild-growing cereals, fruits and berries and hunted on wild animals. Human relations were based on economic equality of collective, on the natural division of labor and were collectivist in nature.
The social organization of people in the paleolithic era was a difficult and long path of development. The initial step was its primitive stage – the union for the common defense and attack, hunting and gathering. This prenatal social education differed with its amorphous, undeveloped public relations, lack of communal household, at the same time decency of marital relationship was inherent for it.
Primitive stage corresponds to two earliest stages of the Lower paleolith – before Acheul and Acheul periods. In the Acheulean period ripe stage for a new social organism - a primitive community grow gradually. In the age of the mousterian settled life and the natural division of labor by sex and age already exist, also initial shapes of the community appear. The human team of the late paleolith socially is characterized by a new face – adding the mature forms of the primitive tribal community. This qualitative leap, how is considered by many researchers, coincided with the transformation of the Neanderthal type into anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens).
© The Institute of History and Ethnology named after Ch. Valikhanov KN RK, 2013
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