In this paper there is an attempt to analyze materials from the President of Kazakhstan N.Nazarbayev speeches (mostly materials used from performances of mid-2000s.), devoted to Kazakhstan’s political reform strategy, which is an integral component of «Kazakhstan’s path of development».
This strategy has evolved over the years, changing depending on the current and future challenges of political and economic development of the country, national and global experience of political and economic transformation [1, p. 68]. According to experts, the success of implementing policy in Kazakhstan was primarily due to the fact that it was a priority is to form the economic basis of the new independent state, and the development of state models came «from the economy to politics» [2, p. 100].
In most of his speeches N.Nazarbayev, speaking of political modernization, its prospects or almost always results in a greater or lesser amount of notes link political transition and economic development of [3–5].
For example, at the International conference «The constitution: individual, society and the State», dedicate to the 10th anniversary of the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan held in Astana. August 30, 2005, he noted as the most important transformations occurred in the country over the period of the existence of the Constitution from 1995, precisely economic construction and formation of foundation for the political modernization of Kazakhstan society. N. Nazarbayev emphasized that «based on the key provision of the Constitution….
N. Nazarbayev pointed out that «based on the key provisions of the Constitution… we spent vital for the country’s fate conversion: build a market economy and laid the foundations of a democratic society (italics — N.L)» [3, p. 21].
Further, in the same speech, the President of Kazakhstan after the submission of the main economic achievements of the Republic specifically focused on the issue of economic relations and political development of the country. He said that by the time «in the wake of our obvious [economic] success can often be heard that political reforms are lagging behind economic ones, that they are artificially constrained» [3, p. 22]. But this statement President questioned, «is it really? Democratization today — one of the main trends of global development. Therefore, in the interests of any state seeking to prosperity and progress, it is essential to use the possibilities mentioned here «[3, pp. 22]. Further in his speech N. Nazarbayev expressed more categorical in this matter, he said: «World experience shows that economic reform and liberalization of the political — and mutually interdependent processes caused ¬ (italics — NL) [3, p. 22].
Moreover, in his speech, N. Nazarbayev reveals the intensity of his vision of economic and political development, he writes: «I am supporter of gradual evolutionary liberalization where intensive economic development determines the depth and sustainability of the democratization of the political system (italics — NL)» [3, pp. 23] . In his speech he justifies this as follows: «the market economy does not tolerate authoritarian ¬ packaged administrative pressure and demands a democratic system. It is a fundamental rule of free market competition and condition of further progress «[3, p. 22]. Further, he says: «In a condition of insufficient competitive economy and not enough strong civil society hasty, and, therefore, holding unprepared radical political reforms can cause social destabilization and lead to the rejection of liberal values, curtailment of democratic processes that we are seeing in some former Soviet republics. And not only «[3, p. 23].
Referring to the international experience, including our neighbors, N. Nazarbayev again sums up: «In poor communities, democracy and political freedom is simply impossible (italics — NL)» [3, p. 23].
These views N. Nazarbayev at the question of the relationship of economic and political development emerged, as the other presentations given human psychology, the individual interests of the population. For example, speaking to members of Parliament of Kazakhstan at the opening of the regular session September 1, 2005 N. Nazarbayev answered the question about what mainly bothers people today in their daily lives, in terms of modernization of society follows «people interested in further improving the quality of life, their personal perspective, the stability of society. After all, the effectiveness of the reforms initiated everyone evaluates primarily from their own positions — as he lives, earning, learning what the prices of goods, what are the prospects of his family, friends and society «[4, p.31].
In the same speech, outlining the basic question of accelerated development of the country at the present stage, the President pointed that, it is in harmony with «economic, social and democratic reforms taking into account the interests of our people» [4, p.34].
Summing up of the 6 months of execution Message of the President 2005, N. Nazarbayev said: «to build an open, free and prosperous society and create a higher standard of living for its citizens on the basis of weak, dependent and non-modern economy and without predominance of the middle class is impossible. And we can achieve it if and only if the nation and economy become competitive (italics — NL) «[4, p.34].
In his speeches, the President of Kazakhstan emphasized on the force which should serve as a basis for economic and political modernization of the country and which actually will depend on the success of this process. N. Nazarbayev on this account said: «the success of our economic and especially political program depends on the strengthening of the country of owners who represent the emerging middle class» [4, p. 47]. President explains that international experience, «it is this [i.e. strong middle class in society] is the growth of democracy, which is why those countries are stable despite the change of elites. That is why I am constantly engaged in the development of small and medium businesses in the country. We have done a lot, but it is just the beginning. When we talk about democratization, we need to link these issues «[4, p. 47].
In addition, N.Nazarbayev pointed out the importance of strengthening the institution of private property in the country and even characterizes this institution as a «key to accelerate comprehensive modernization of Kazakhstan» [4, p. 48].
Below, in the same speech, N.Nazarbayev returns to the thesis of the third class, and stresses that without the middle class, «the process of modernization is simply impossible. Therefore, the main question now is to provide permanent and stable development of the middle class, with its own design and aware of his social interests «[4, pp. 48].
N. Nazarbayev’s speech announced at the meeting of the State Commission on development and democratic reforms, held on March 24, 2006, in Astana, he again noted the relationship of political and economic development of the state. Speaking of consistent economic modernization of the country, a «breakthrough» in the economic development of Kazakhstan N. Nazarbayev emphasized that the immediate condition of economic development is effectively acting country’s political institutions. He says: «I am convinced and I think you agree with me that such a large-scale problems and can fit only contribute to effective public authorities, development of political institutions, constructive political parties, public organizations and institutions of civil society working mechanisms to guarantee the rights and freedoms of citizens «[5, 65]. In this regard, the President of Kazakhstan concludes «we are determined to continue the consistent democratic transformation and political modernization of the country» [5, 65].
However, he warns, appealing to the international experience that you should not blindly copy foreign models, as they can lead to a completely unexpected, opposite results. N.Nazarbayev said: «the world has repeatedly witnessed when some recipes being mechanically brought on unprepared soil, brought opposite fruit than expected from the restoration of archaic models of social structure to direct violence and chaos» [5, pp. 67 ].
Here the President drew attention to the particular relations of economic and political development of the state, namely not always complete identification of economic well-being of citizens of some countries and their level of political development. N.Nazarbayev in this regard, said that «unfortunately, many often overlooked real picture of the complex process of building democracy in a country. World experience knows examples of the consequences of the imbalance between power efficiency and liberality political systems»[5, 67]. As an example, he cites such large countries like India, Brazil, Argentina, which «have long been considered fully democratic, but no one disputes the fact that a significant portion of their population is under the welfare and suffering from poverty» [5, 67]. At the same time in other countries, says the President of Kazakhstan «is not perceived as a democracy in the world» enabled rapid economic growth and prosperity [5, 67]. It says NA Nazarbayev, «frequent contradiction between democratic apparatus of the political system and effective management of the economy» [5, 67]. Mapping the task for our country, for that matter, the President of Kazakhstan said — «Today it is important to find the optimal balance between growth and preservation of the democratic changes of the stable equilibrium and a high degree of legitimacy of the existing political system» [5, 68].
Overall, the analysis of N. Nazarbayev’s speeches suggests that the President of Kazakhstan in his speeches mutually determines issues of economic and political modernization. While N. Nazarbayev speaks as a supporter of gradual, evolutionary political liberalization, which should be due to the high competitiveness of the economy.
As a «human framework» modernization of the country in his speeches, the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan allocates the private class of small and medium of owners — the «third class». Thus, in the speeches of the President of Kazakhstan N. Nazarbayev, economic development is a necessary condition for political modernization of Kazakhstan.
List of references:
1. Сейлеханов Е. Т. Политическая система Республики Казахстан: опыт развития и перспективы: монография. — Алматы: КИСИ при Президенте РК, 2009. — 296 с.
2. Рахимжанова А. Ж. Опыт экономической трансформации Казахстана //Опыт политической и экономической трансформации: казахстанская модель // Опыт политической и экономической трансформации: казахстанская модель. Материалы «круглого стола» (г. Алматы, 3 апреля 2008 г.) / Отв. ред. Б. К. Султанов. — Алматы: КИСИ при Президенте РК, 2008. — С. 100–104.
3. Выступление Президента Республики Казахстан Н. А. Назарбаева на международной научно-практической конференции «Конституция: личность, общество и государство», посвященной 10-летию Конституции Республики Казахстан. — Астана, 30 августа 2005 г. // Н. А. Назарбаев и казахстанская стратегия политических реформ: сборник документов и материалов в трех томах / Отв. ред. Б. К. Султанов. — Алматы: КИСИ при Президенте РК, 2010. — Том II. — С. 19- 29.
4. Выступление Президента РК Н. А. Назарбаева на открытии второй сессии Парламента Республики Казахстан Казахстанский путь: стабильность, модернизация и процветание. — Астана, 1 сентября 2005 года // Н. А. Назарбаев и казахстанская стратегия политических реформ: сборник документов и материалов в трех томах / Отв. ред. Б. К. Султанов. — Алматы: КИСИ при Президенте РК, 2010. — Том II. — С. 30–55.
5. Выступление Главы государства на заседании Государственной комиссии по разработке и конкретизации программы демократических реформ. — Астана, 24 марта 2006 года // Н. А. Назарбаев и казахстанская стратегия политических реформ: сборник документов и материалов в трех томах / Отв. ред. Б. К. Султанов. — Алматы: КИСИ при Президенте РК, 2010. — Том II. — С. 64–72.
N. Lapin, «History of the state»: a scientific journal, 2010, № 4, p 58–62.
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