Critical moment in the modern history of Kazakhstan was gaining independence after the collapse of USSR. Kazakhstan as a new state emerged on political map of the world in December 1991. Thus, the construction of the new state began.
Contemporary Kazakhs inherited vast territory with a unique culture, special life perception and cognition. This spirit of freedom and steppe valor was not wasted on critical moments of the history. Previous generation, who faced with difficult test on their way, managed to maintain them.
Every generation made their own mission. At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries great Abay paved the way to the big world and reanimated the community of geniuses of Alash Horde. Political elite, in its turn, managed to raise the consciousness of the people and formulated ideas that allowed the Kazakhs to get up from the backwardness and historical oblivion. The Kazakh elite became the forerunner of the remarkable generation of writers and thinkers during 30-40s of the 20th century. Their efforts have helped save the nation itself from totalitarianism, famine and war during the destruction of old standards. Postwar generation could not only raise the industry, Virgin Lands Campaign but also create a solid foundation for the development of education and science. Kazakhs have become a nation of engineers and scientists, builders, geologists, metallurgists and doctors. Ability to foresee trends in the socio-political and economic development became the condition that allowed it to create a modern model of state.
N. Nazarbayev after being appointed as the President on April 1990 took responsibility for the State and its citizens. State activity and political awareness allowed the Kazakh leader to form the model of the state that incorporate national interests and global trends of political development.
For stable and perspective development of Kazakhstan it is necessary to identify the direction. Among the strategic plans and programs of the central place occupied pre
Presidential Strategy “Kazakhstan-2030”, which aimed to ensure prosperity, security and improvement people’s welfare, took the main place among the other plans and programs.
In short time, analyzing the way that Kazakhstan has overcame, it can be noticed that the state successfully resolved number of critical issues related to the economic and political transformation, managed to achieve a significant progress in building a democratic state with a market economy. This was facilitated by well-defined priorities, holding a balanced domestic and foreign policy, as well as consistency in achieving these goals.
Kazakhstani way in formation of the model of statehood began with economic reforms. Liberalization of prices, introduction of the national currency, creation of the banking system, privatization of state property, development of small and medium business and transition to the market relations were the basis of the future prosperous Kazakhstan.
Throughout the history of independence the state saw the real progresses in the West and South-East Asia. For example, the GDP of South Korea during the first 20 years of its sovereign development increased by 3 times, in Malaysia by 2 times, Singapore by 4 times, Hungary by 5 times and Poland by 4 times. By 20 years of Kazakhstan’s independence this figure increased by 16 times.
Adopted in 2003 Strategy of Industrial and Innovation Development for 2003-2015 was the beginning of the course to diversify the economy. From 2010 began the phase of accelerated innovative industrialization. If in the early 90s industrial output was only 0.2 billion tenge now it has reached 12 trillion tenge.
The result of industrial policy was the finished products of manufacturing industry that has been recognized in the world market. Due to the industrialization program, only during 2009-2010, more than 350 different industries started their operation. Hundreds of thousands of qualified industrial jobs has been created in the country.
The country was able to use its strategic location between Europe and Asia and advantageous transit potential. The state has been actively implementing the project of transit corridor “Western Europe —Western China”. More than 1,000 km of the 2,700 transit corridor was built by 2011. Tens of thousands people worked on the construction of the highway.
Developed and implemented industrial "Roadmap" allowed paving more than a thousand kilometers of railways, building and repairing more than 40 thousand kilometers of roads. Construction of roads, railway stations gave jobs to thousands of people, increasing the country's transit potential in several times.
The volume of gross agricultural production for 2001-2011 has increased by 4 times. In 1990 Kazakhstan did not export anything, but in 2012 Kazakhstani export was $ 92 billion.
Kazakhstan has been able to overcome the economic collapse and create effective economic integrated into the global world. The country entered to the first fifty countries by a number of indicators. Kazakhstan is on the list of “Doing Business” of the World Bank and in the ranking of The Global Competitiveness Index of the World Economic Forum in the UN Human Development Index. The country has become “habitué” of Fitch Ratings, Moody’s and Standard & Poor’s reports. In 2012, the international competiveness ranking of the World Economic Forum in Davos (Switzerland) raised Kazakhstan on 21 positions. According to this rating Kazakhstan took 51st place.
In Kazakhstan along with liberal model of development of economy was created the model of democratic and political system. Political and legal foundations of state sovereignty were established, the key principle and bases of the organization of society and the state were affirmed since adaption of the Constitution. This allows carrying out its strategic goals and objectives of the modernization of material and spiritual life of Kazakhstani society.
The association of presidency, the association of parliamentary, multi-party system, civil society and communities of local government were formed in the country. Now in the country there are over 5 thousand Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and about 2, 7 thousand media.
During the years of independence, the country had gradual reformation of the law enforcement system that allowed to Kazakhstan immediately improve its position on 45 in the global anti-corruption index rating from 2009 to 2011. At that time it was the best result in the CIS.
Significant results have been achieved in the field of national security. Armed forces, agencies of law enforcement and protection of national security were formed in the country. Kazakhstan solved issues concerned the registration and delimitation of the state border, also formed a good-neighborhood around its territory. Demarcation became possible thanks to adjusted international policy of the state, personal authority and efforts of the first President of Kazakhstan N. Nazarbayev.
The country actively participated in the global, international and regional organization on security and cooperation. It also builds harmonious relations of strategic partnership with leading counties of the world. Significant contribution in strengthening of global and regional security is the creation of Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building Measures in Asia.
Multi-vector foreign policy of the Republic proved its effectiveness. Gender equality, mutually beneficial cooperation with the states and foreign countries, global financial institutions, deepen regional and interregional relations were established in the country. Kazakhstan being a link in the negotiation process between civilizations, actively promote dialogue between the West and the Islamic world.
Alima Auanasova– Ph.D., senior researcher at the Institute of History of State MES of Kazakshtan
Arman Suleimenov– Seniour Researcher at the Institute of History of the State MES of Kazakhstan
The article was published in the newspaper "Evening Astana" on December 12, 2013.
Material provided by the Institute of History of State KH MES