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Agriculture in East Kazakhstan in the beginning of war 1941-1942

04 December 2013
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In extreme conditions of the Great Patriotic War, the importance and role of Kazakhstan in ensuring the army and the population of agricultural products and industrial raw materials increased significantly. This was due to the temporary occupation of the German — fascist invaders fertile land area of 71 million hectare, i.e. about 40% of the sown area of the country.

In republican historiography emphasized that the first concrete tasks for the restructuring of agriculture on a war footing in decision 5th plenum of Central Committee of the Communist Party (b) of Kazakhstan in our opinion, this is not entirely correct, since the gradual transfer of the Soviet economy by the military regime began in 1939. In particular, only in the Kazakh SSR on June 22, 1941 26,000 women tractor drivers were trained. Men tractor drivers in accordance with the law on universal conscription recruited into the ranks of the Red Army, where a new mechanized corps and the compound were formed [1].

Taking into account military situation of 5th plenum Central Committee of the Communist Party (b) of Kazakhstan obligated part, soviet and economic organizations to increase efficiency and accuracy in the management of agricultural production. Plenum demanded multiply crop, to fight for every kilo of bread, for each ear, for each grain [2].

Difficult conditions, in which the restricting agriculture on a war footing took place, should be paid close attention. During 1941–1942 period of time the rural population decreased by 586,766 people. Major changes had occurred in the district management.

During 1941 — 1942 years to the leadership came from the number of young staff 75% of secretaries of district party committees, chairmen of executive committees, district chiefs, directors of state farms.

Moreover, the war has caused the diversion of funds and energy to the needs of national defense. During the first two years of the war power of the republic fleet decreased by 16.3% and crawler tractors by 31%. To a large extent were limited opportunities to provide the industry of agricultural machinery

In this respect, we should agree with K. Aldazhumanov who rightly pointed out that the management of large-scale socialist agriculture in the harsh conditions of the war is impossible without the maximum and efficient use of remaining in the rear of agricultural machinery and mobilization of relevant qualified personnel [3].

In order to fulfill its obligations on the farm «Red Mountain Eagles» have established procedures appropriate wartime. In the administrative apparatus remains the minimum number of people. All the others were transferred to the field work. Reviewing and strictly taking into account its internal reserves Urdzhar people increased production quotas by 20–25%. June 29, 1941 the Central Committee of the Communist Party (b) of Kazakhstan approved treatment «Red Mountain Eagles» kolkhoz and instructed all collective and state farms and state enterprises urgently discuss it.

Party and state organizations with their decision to establish a new schedule of the day, reviewing performance standards, restoring order in the accounting and calculating workdays. Serious consideration was given to the release of workers and service of management system.

In the book «Kazakhstan in the first year of World War II», it is reported that farmers of farm named after Stalin East — Kazakhstan region, supporting the initiative Urdzhar people declared themselves mobilized and by strengthening labor discipline and increase working hours have increased production quotas by 30–50% reduced the time of harvesting for 7 days in advance and carried out a plan of bread supply [4].

Also a serious role in addressing various issues of agricultural land owned by the local authorities, whose activities are directed to People’s Commissariat for Agriculture Narkomzem and the executive committees of regional and district councils.
Taking into account that in the war, Kazakh SSR becomes the largest livestock base in the country, 5th Plenum of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (b) of Kazakhstan in order to maintain and increase livestock recommended to collective and state farms to implement transhumance.
The event provided established of each collective and state farms amount of cattle to be distilled off, fastening them land for cattle, the statement of the number of brigades advanced livestock farmers, providing them with warm clothing and food products.

At the same time, the national press has been criticized style of Semipalatinsk regional party committee, which «instead of increasing demands interested in the creation of staff, triples and fives on various economic issues». Not surprisingly, the Belagachsky district party committee also created five on wintering cattle and «grazing management», headed by the Secretary of the District Committee Parshin, thereby taking on the concrete economic public bodies [5].

Military departments MTS and state farms pay particular attention to the work of women. During the planting time in 1942 in a number of collective and state farms of Semipalatinsk and East Kazakhstan regions was formed the Institute of women’s organizers.

The tasks of women institutes included creating farms of female asset, childcare facilities, conducting mass agitation among women, the study of life and material assistance.

Thus, in the extreme conditions of the initial period of war, collective and state farms of East Kazakhstan managed to restructure its work and to mobilize available resources to the delivery plans of various types of agricultural products in quantities in excess of the pre-war level of production.


A. Pashencev

State University named after Shakarim Semey

Literature:

1. M. Kozybayev, Communist party of Kazakhstan during the Great Patriotic War, Almaty: Kitap, 1975, p. 80–81.

2. Kazakhstan in the first year of Great War, Almaty: Kitap, 1942. P. 125–129.

3. Kazakhstan in the first year of Great War, Essays, Almaty: Kitap, 1974, p. 121–126.

4. Kazakhstan in the first year of the World War II, Almaty: Kitap, 1942, p. 135–141.

5. H. Anastasev, Fast eliminations of shortcomings in the work of the Party organizations. Bolshevik Kazakhstan, 1942, p.14–15.

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