the analysis about relevancy and circumstances connected with number
"seven" in customs of the Kazakh people becomes.
In methodical grant «Activity of the person - history» Russian source studier A.B.Kazakov as if showed that the person is intended by the actions and activity to thumb through history, from the moment of revival developing together, customs of the Kazakh people, were transferred to young generation, by an interrelation principle. Ancestors paid much attention to values of environment, the nature, the phenomena concerning mankind and their relation to people, having divided them into groups, giving everyone a name.
Vital practicians of ancestors not only historic facts, and as example substantial, harmonious and peaceful life. Such reasonable tradition, thought highly of historical knowledge concept, doing human relations judicious. Researchers of sciences as A.Yanushkevich, A.Pozdnev, B.Ya.Vladimirtsev, V.L.Kotvich, the Item of Pelliot highly appreciated such customs of kochevnichesky life of Kazakhs, calling them: «Steppe diploma».
Actually steppe literacy occurred from his outlook, and customs remained on its basis. And one of such parties of outlook, feature «figures seven» and on its basis carried-out ceremonies.To sacred number "seven" Kazakhs in concept treat seven great-grandfathers, constellation and seven planets, seven parts of a body and seven jutes, seven valuable and seven khalal, seven charters and seven steps, seven phenomena, seven components of food Nauryz .
Considered that the person lives between seven worlds and constellation. Seven worlds: Rising, West, South, North, Sky, Earth, Vault. The sky - the top world, Earth - the average world, the Vault - the bottom world. Constellation - one of mythological concepts of the Kazakh people come to us since ancient times. Generally «seven constellations» it is names connected with seven stars in Muslim astronomical knowledge. They are - the Moon, Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn. Was considered that changes in seven worlds and constellation influences thinking of the person. And also the Kazakh people considered that changes in seven worlds and constellation influence an economy and considered it as «seven phenomena». The people called a heat, cold, snow, a rain, a wind, a blizzard and frosts in a word the phenomena. Kazakhs consider that there are seven phenomena. They are: sun eclipse, arrival of November, calling of a galaxy, ice hardening, pairing of saigas, beginning of quarter, …
By the end of May of the third month of spring weather becomes windy. Earth quickly dries up, but becomes cold. At this time saigas have cubs, they lift the cubs – kuralai and graze them on a pasture. Such cold days at the end of May the people call «colds kuraly». Kazakhs are afraid of these cold days. From the beginning of June the galaxy at all disappears and begins 40 days of July. In the people there are catchwords «If the galaxy won't disappear, the earth» won't heat up. In the spring at the end of March when birds fly with warm edges, it is raining with the snow and the strong wind begins. Such change of weather at the end of March in the people call wings of birds. After starts everything to thaw and becomes slushy. Rainy days in an interval since April 8-18 call beskonak (five guests). After beskonak (five guests) people prepare for the spring affairs on an economy.In June, July the strong heat which lasts 40 days begins. It in the people is called by «40 days of July».
Correct structure of the person names seven parts of a body. They: a head, two hands, two feet, a breast, a stomach. As physically healthy person consider the person having all parts of a body. Kazakhs understood on seven jutes that there are dangerous situations for human life. Jute - the adverse phenomena of weather (a drought, covering of the earth by iceand etc.) from for which inhabitants of regions suffer a crisis economic condition. The Kazakh people say that Jute consists of «seven brothers». Seven Jutes: earthquake, war, a fire, a stream, a drought, illness, snow-ice. Sometimes during atmospheric circulation poles and directions of air weights deviate from usual positions thereof in warm edges it becomes strongly cold, and in cold warmly.
In the 19th century in the Kazakh valley 20 large Jutes are registered. On data tally keepers, they repeat each 10-12 years. Largest of them – in 1879/80 «jute of a great rabbit» because of which about 48 percent of cattle of the Kazakh valley sustained losses. Consequences of jute were on the average restored only in 8-10 years. Elders providing such situations organized in the summer of work on collecting a stock of hay and a grass for the winter. In traditional the Kazakh society in time jute carried out ceremonies of prayers to God, on rescue from unforeseen natural phenomena.
One more seven the taken special place in traditions of the Kazakh people is possession of seven values. Seven values – one of concepts of traditional outlook of Kazakhs. The Kazakh people connect seven intimate with life of the guy, and him treat: racer, golden eagle, fleet dog, gun, trap, network, sharp knife. A fast horse - wings of the Young boy. A golden eagle - force. A fleet dog – the faithful companion. A gun - fire, a trap – an oath. A network - receptions dodges. A knife – self-defense. The people considered that 7 valuable, the basic vital needs.7 riches it – 1) reason and consciousness of the person. As, by means of the person we can we separate fauna, and becoming the owner of the world;2) health, that is sound body;3) mother, the woman in the house – the spouse, mother of children.From time immemorial the people respected the woman as the successor of mankind.4) the child – continuation of human life, happiness.5) the attention – Kohl will be wide attention and aspiration, the consent and abundance will be constructed;6) earth;7) dog. This is the faithful companion. One more seven necessary for the people – 7 khalals. They: word, sound, eyes, nose, feeling, thing, heart, organism. At preservation pure above called, the person is considered pure and true. The following seven, a providing, full development of the person – 7 steps. Seven steps: honor, conscience, shame, decency, kindness, care, respect. The person improved from a spiritual moral aspect should observe these steps. Observance of seven steps helps formation with the person of pleasant habits. Good habits help the person to put all the forces in useful affairs. The people, considered that in addition with spiritual wealth physical force which is in Nauryz's seven grains is necessary for the person also: millet, wheat, oats, barley, buckwheat, white wheat, winter wheat. And in seven tastes: salt, spring water, kefir, soup, shubat, kurt, cheese.
One more seven necessary for the people – 7 khalals. They are: The most important and sacred for the Kazakh people of-7 great-grandfathers. The Kazakh customs, about seven great-grandfathers who are directly connected by introduction of public and social norms in customs about a courtship ban to seven generations. The Kazakh boy grew knowing, names of all seven great-grandfathers since itself, the father, the grandfather, the great-grandfather, the great-great-grandfather, and etc.. Researchers of the chronicle: families of relatives and a family in the neighborhood living in one settlement – fellows villager, neighbors, and if in the distance - fellow countrymen. On researches descendants of seven grandfathers – blood; from above from 13 grandfathers - a sort; some childbirth connected by one blood, or one purpose – a tribe; among themselves public, tribes incorporated as dzhuz – the people or the country; from them other nation if there is a political equality with the people – the people, at achievement of independent border, political economic independence - the state, at office, partnership of ethnic features, language and traditions, culture, the earth, social and spiritual will – the nation; Also there is an exact definition of such names as: «seven great-grandfathers», "primogenitor", «grand brothers», «the distant relative», «neutral brothers». For Kazakhs coherence of generation - a life basis, the most great value of life. Therefore seven generations, seven great-grandfathers - a basis of coherence of generation. That is, according to traditional knowledge concept of the Kazakh, each generation was equated to one grandfather. Generation which consisted of seven great-grandfathers, could marry off the daughter by traditions, and separate as the second sort.
Each union of a tribe considered features of nomadic life in the winter and in the summer. Secondly, it was formed for the purpose of protection of the earth, the homeland, the people. Thirdly, without mixing blood to seven great-grandfathers, to rescue a genetic stock of ethnos, keeping purity of generation.
The possession among Kazakhs to sacred characteristics of number "seven" and concepts «seven great-grandfathers» is connected such secret reasons.
Candidate of historical sciences,
senior teacher.West Kazakhstan State
Universityof M. Utemisov
The used literatures:
1. Akseleu Seydimbek. Oral history of Kazakhs. Astana: Foliant, 2008-728p.
2. Customs and traditions of the Kazakh people. 1-volume: unity and features. Almaty, 2005.
3. Nazhmidenov Zhumagelda, Baygoza Zharkynbek. The natural drama of the Founder about the earth from seven figures. // True. 2010. - №8.
4.Galiyev A.A. Traditional outlook of Kazakhs. Almaty, 1997.
5. Kenzheakhmetuli S. Seven values. 1–book. Almaty, 2002.