Home E-resources Е-archive Materials of the New Age The ethnolography of the little Zhuz in the explorers' works of XIX century

The ethnolography of the little Zhuz in the explorers' works of XIX century

16 October 2013

It was analyzed works devoted to ethnography of Kazakh’s of The Little Zhus. Also there are described spacious materials about the Kazakh etymology, the Kazakhs’ ethno-genesis, rus and tribes contained The Little Zhus and traditional rights.

Key words: ethnographic researches, Russian militaries, travelers, scientists, The Little Zhuz, customs and traditions, traditional right, ethno-genetic.

Collecting and researching of materials about Kazakh ethnographic concerning to XIX century was one of the main tasks for Russian science. The reasons of arise such problem were to use Kazakh steppe as colonial location and as the raw material for Russian empire. That’s why Russian empire organized military, natural, geographic and ethnographic researchers.

In the 20th - 40th of XIX century The Russian Empire sent trade and diplomatic embassies, organized by tens of military and scientific expeditions. One of such kind of expedition was organized to Buhara in 1820-1821 by leading of A. F. Negry. Though the main aim of embassy was to pay attention to trade and commercial parts, in addition to this, it was to pay attention to natural resources, to the political state in Central Asia, to their governors although it had been given the task to determine their attitude with Buhara, Afghanistan, Iran and Osman Empire [1]. It had been included specialist of nature and geography E.A. Eversman, captain of General Staff E.K. Meiendorf, Lieutenant V.D. Volhovsky to Negry’s embassy. With these staff E.K. Meiendorf and E.A. Eversman gave a lot of interesting facts about roving Kazakhs from Orenburg till Buhara.

E.K. Meiendorf (1796-1865), in his notebook, wrote about Kazakhs’ customs and traditions, about their everyday life, food and its methods of cooking, he also described ways of hunting to saigak and wild boar, about barymta, (barymta author: seizing cattle among turk people. Way of the vengeance for the offence or as the recompense to the caused damage), about women, about Russian captives’ state in Kazakh villages, wrote about management in Kazakh steppe. “ … Often at night, sitting on the stone they look to the moon and sing sad songs. It was described the past of the Kazakhs, historic and legendary national heroes on these songs… ”, Russian traveler said [2, p. 193]. He opened general contents of lyrical Kazakh songs. Also he was one of among Russian researchers who confirmed that Kazakhs and Kirghizes mustn’t be called with one name; he said that they are different.

The great numbers of rich ethnographic materials are retained in his third book. In the chapter “Travel from Orenburg to Buhara” he gave some interesting ethnographic facts about ways of hunting to saigak and about the everyday life of Aryngazy sultan’s village [2]. We can see a lot of ethnographic facts and materials in Eversman’s diary, published in German, who took part in this expedition as a member of Russian geographic society [3].

Difficult achievements of Russian geographic society in researching Kazakh nation was linked with the name of one of founders of Russian geographic society A. I. Levshin (1799-1879). His first manuscripts about Kazakh is “Way notes”, “Meeting with khan of kirghiz-kaisak orda” were published in 1820 [4, p. 551]. There were described ways of servicing guests and hospitality, types of old kazakh songs, about their definitions. In 1823-1824 it was published his book “Some facts about ancient town Saraishyk” [4, p. 556] and in 1825 it was published his article with title “about education in kirghiz-kaisak: fragments from descriptions of Kazakh ordas” [4, p. 557].

He was published with important article “Names of Kirghiz-kazakh and its differences from usual and savage kirghizes” [4, p. 558]. At this article he described real name of Kazakh and usage of name of kirghiz instead of Kazakh. He also underlined that usage of name kirghiz instead of Kazakh would be groundless after. He was also agree with E.K. Meiendorf with this facts.

The third part of his fundamental research “Description of Kirghiz-kaisak or kirghiz-kazakh’s ordas and steppes” was regarded to the Kazakh ethnography [4]. The ethnographic part of monograph contains of 32 chapters, it was caused main and important ethnographic goals.

Among the other scientists who had been researched ethnography of Kazakhs of The Little Zhus was G.G. fon-Hens. He had great deal of merit. Though Hens’s profession was military engineer, at first years of his work in Kazakh steppes, he conducted works concerning to natural and mineral resources. Therefore, he had made many archival manuscripts about history, ethnography, linguistic, folklore and economy of the Kazakhs. We can name work “Origin of the Kazakhs and its derivation” among them. In this work the author paid attention to the kazakh’s terminology used in some ethnographic fables, he explained rus of the little zhus, and their inhabited locality [5].

Even with this kind of prosperity there were not enough and were not rich collection of materials concerning to history of 20th - 40th of XIX century. They were only interested in rus and tribes structures, their locality and everyday life. Culture and art were not enough discussed.

Russian researchers of the second part of XIX century dedicated their works to the problems of mode of life, traditions and traditional rights in The Litlle Zhuz. Among these researchers was Russian office L.Meier, on his work named “Orenburg department of Kirghiz steppe” he gave some information about population of the little zhus, derivations of the little zhuz, and about their locality, amount of rus, motto, stock breeding, hunting and agriculture [6].

The head of Orenburg department of Russian geographic society L.F. Balluzek on his work “Traditional customs which have had the power of the law in small kirghiz orda” contained collections of materials concerning court affair, civil and criminal rights [7]. The work was succeed in collectors of those materials were Kazkh aristocrats. Thus, Kazakh sultans describing traditional rights were not always objective.

Russian sciences were also interested in problems of Kazakh ethno-genetic. But they couldn’t reveal its whole definition. Only some of its aspects were added. Among of the authors who had researched kazakhs’ ethno-genetic was ethnographer A.N. Haruzin. He was famous with his works devoted to ethnography and anthropology of Bokei Orda. Concerning to the materials of M.H. Dulaty, which were translated by Veliyminov-Zernov, he was mistaken thinking that the Kazakh, as political union, was founded only in the middle of XV century. [5, p. 42].

Making conclusion, from collected and analyzed materials, written research works, outlines and monographs, a lot of expeditions and researches there were given large volume to the researching the little zhus Kazakhs in the ethnographic position by Russian researchers. Russian and world history with the helping of E.K. Meiendorf, A.I. Levshin, L.F. Balluzek and another scientist would have extensive and real materials about the Kazakh. Using and discussing about it would be large achievement nowadays.

U.T.Akhmetova, Doctor of History, docent of West Kazakhstan State Universityof M. Utemisov.

Zh.K.Mukhangalieva, candidate of historical sciences,senior teacher of West Kazakhstan State Universityof M. Utemisov.

List of used literature:

1. Akhmetova U.T. The formationand the activityof the Orenburg scientific archival commission (1887-1918): The thesis is submitted to confer the academic degree the Doctor of History. – Uralsk, 2010, p. 47

2. Meiendorf E. K. Ethnography of the Kazakhs in the notes of travelers in the beginning of XIX century. The 2nd supplemented edition, volume 49. - Astana “Altyn kytap”, 2007, p. 246

3. Vasiliev A. Travel of doctor Eversman to Buhara. / Works of Orenburg scientific archival commission. – Orenburg, 1905, edition 14, p. 200-210

4. Levshin A.I. Description of kirghiz-kazakh or Kirgiz kaisak steppes and ordas (under general editing of academic M.K.ozybaev). - Almaty, “Sanat”, 1996 p. 656

5. Kamieva G.B. From the researching history of the Kazakh ethnography (XVIII-XIX centuries): Educational supply. – Аktau, 2010, p. 75

6. Meier L. Orenburg department of Kazakh steppe. The 2nd supplemented edition, volume 17. - Astana “Altyn kytap”, 2007, p. 193

7. Balluzek L.F. Traditional customs which have had the power of the law in small kirghiz orda. P. 45-168 / Notes of Orenburg department of Russian, imperial geographic society. The 2nd edition 1871 – Kazan university press, 1872, p. 289

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