On 16 May 1992, Nursultan Nazarbayev’s “Strategy of
Establishment and Develop ment of Kazakhstan as a Sovereign State” was
published in all major national newspapers introducing the major reforms in the
state and in the society, the ideas of democracy and the rules of law and the
market oriented economy. The strategy focused on the following spheres:
Domestic and foreign policy: development of a young sovereign state moving toward a strong presidential republic; creation of multiparty system; provision of stability as main political objective and condition for successful implementation of economic reforms; maintenance of geopolitical, multilateral, military, political and economic balances for security and sovereignty of the republic; increase of the political significance of Kazakhstan in the international arena through observance of democratic freedoms and human rights; search for its own place in the global economy and use of a strategic geopolitical position of Kazakhstan to enter global economic relations.
Economy: creation of a competitive market economy based on both private and state ownership; creation of legal and other conditions for implementation of the principle of economic self-determination of a person; achievement of strong positions in the world commodity markets for natural resources of Kazakhstan; reconstruction of its economy through priority development of processing and high-tech industries, export and import-substitution industries equipped with modem foreign technology; efficiency of consumer market; attraction of foreign investments for the development of Kazakhstan.
Social development: creation of a society, which provides wealth to all its people and guaranties entrepreneurship freedom and opportunity to apply personal abilities in any other sphere of activity; development of ethnic originality and preservation of national and cultural diversity of Kazakhstan; increase of personal income, pensions and benefits according to the growth and stability of the economy and its integration into global economic relations.
During the economic crisis, the government of the republic decided to introduce its own model of economic changes and of the transition to the market. The new direction was justified on the basis of rich reserves of natural resources in Kazakhstan and on the needs to develop various form of ownership, to convert the defense industry, and to rationalize the usage of intellectual and industrial potentials of the country.
“What are the concrete strategic aims that we need to consider presently? If we mean politics, they are as follows:
Development of a young sovereign state moving toward a strong presidential republic. At the same time, it is important to preserve the national features of our state lest it become a mere sum of administrative and territorial units.
A nation cannot exist without national identity, it would disappear otherwise. The disappearance of the nation makes the very existence of the state impossible. This is tough dialectics of the problem”. (Nursultan Nazarbayev. “Strategy of Formation and Development of Kazakhstan as a Sovereign State”. Alma-Ata, 1992. P. 33)
“Kazakhstan’s sovereignty has a complicated political and legal nature. It is a unique synthesis of national sovereignty of Kazakhs (as a leading link), which returns them to their national roots and traditions and of sovereignty of the Kazakhstani people as a single ethnic and political community. Therefore, problems of social stability and of dynamic balance of the multiethnic interests will always define the process of the formation of our state. Realizing it, it is necessary to continuously work on unifying of all of the peoples living in the republic to achieve Kazakhstan’s prosperity, happiness and freedom of every person, improved material and spiritual culture of all citizens. I am confident that we would be able to achieve it on the base of innate ability of the Kazakhs to live in peace and accord with all ethnic groups, on the base of their natural kindness and deep respect to their neighbors’ interests. The Kazakh people would expect the same level of kindness, respect and understanding of their aspiration to revive their nation from the other peoples living in Kazakhstan. This mutual understanding will become the ground for accord and freedom in our country”. (Nursultan Nazarbayev. Strategy of Formation and Development of Kazakhstan as a Sovereign State. Alma-Ata, 1992. P. 37)
“The state-building process of the independent Kazakhstan will be achieved by the de-facto presidential government. The president of the republic as the leader of the state must have all necessary instruments of power to be able to effectively governance. As the head of government, he will solve issues related to the work of the supreme executive power, will appoint the personnel in the government, will determine the responsibilities of the government as a whole and of its members”. (Nursultan Nazarbayev. Strategy of Formation and Development of Kazakhstan as a Sovereign State. Alma-Ata, 1992. P. 38).
Source: NURSULTAN NAZARBAYEV: THE FOUNDER OF THE INDEPENDENT STATE (The Chronicles of a Leader) published in Almaty, 2010, pp. 76-78
Data was given from the Institute of State History, Committee of Science of The Ministry of Education and Science