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Mass outcome of people as a result of collectivization and hunger in Kazakhstan

23 September 2013
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Around one million of Kazakhs, escaping from Bolshevik collectivization and the following hunger, came outside their Motherland and fought to cross the boundaries.

Mass outcome movement of Kazakh people in many regions of the Republic was one of the forms of mass protest and Sharua’s opposition against collectivization as well as rescue from hunger. Outcome not only to other regions but also abroad, including China, Iran and Afghanistan, started with the beginning of collectivization and confiscation. Approximately 400 thousand farms, i.e. not less than 75% existing be the end of 1920-s nomad and seminomad farms, migrated from Kazakhstan. According to the internal document of United State Political Administration «About the migration of Kazakh farms to China», worked out on the basis of materials as of January 1, 1930, outlined that «directives concerning migration of people to China, before confiscation of farms of wealthy Kazakhs and in connection with confiscation, were made by Kazakh nationalists, considering this measure as one of the methods of stock-raising farms protection from bankruptcy, which is delivered to the steppe by Soviet policy. For the whole 1929 129 wealthy, 128 peasant and 165 poor farms migrated to the territory of China. In total there were 416 farms. 739 people with wealthy farms, 474 — with peasant, with poor — 132 and in total 1845 people went. During the year 250 farms with 17577 heads of cattle or 26,4% in regard to the total number of those who tried migrate were stopped by Boundary Guards».

Armed rebellions of peasants and Sharua also accompanied with outcomes. The significant part of rebellious auls of Balkhash, Chokpar, Ili, Yenbekshikazakh, Bien-Aksuy, Sarkand, Jarkent and Baribay districts of Alma-Aty circle appeared on the territory of China

Special report of Alshansky, Deputy Plenipotentiary Representative of United State Political Administration in Kazakhstan, of December 22, 1930 informed about external and internal migrations of Kazakh people from border districts of Alma-Aty and Semipalatinsk circles to China.

Thus, approximately one million of Kazakhs, escaping from Bolshevik collectivization and the following hunger, came outside their Motherland and fought to cross the boundaries. Only a half of them return to their native land.

LIST OF USED LITERATURE:

  1. Special State Archive of the National Security Committee of the Republic of Kazakhstan Archive. № 12. (Ф. 2. Оп. 1. Арх. № 12. Л. 14–19.)
  2. Archive of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan. (Ф. 141. Оп. 1. Д. 5057. Л. 1–2.)

Zh. U. Kadyrgalina,

First Deputy Director of the Institute of History of State,
Doctor of Historical Sciences (the Republic of Kazakhstan)

Material was provided by the Institute of History of State of the CS of the MES of the RK

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