The new type of public administration
I.N. Dauranov, Ph.D. in Economics,
Institute of Economics CS of the MES RK
Our goal is to form a new type of public administration. It should conform with the new tasks of service to society and consolidation of statehood.
First. We need a further development of state planning and forecasting system.
I set a goal – to strengthen the responsibility of government agencies for elaboration of plans and programs. In this regard, I assign to the Government:
· With due consideration of my vision of Kazakhstan development Strategy till 2050, to carry out the “reloading” of policy papers, upon which the country works and lives.
· To buildup the Concept of the public audit implementation in the country, to introduce the respective bill draft to the Parliament the next year .We need to create the complex system of public audit on the ground of advanced global experience.
It is difficult to overestimate the promptness and actual
continuity of specified guidelines in the area of the public administration
system reforming. In Kazakhstan since
2007 the new model of state planning, to the basis of which was put the
result-oriented budgeting system, has been implemented. Its application has allowed
significantly raise the effectiveness of the government agencies activity
in a part of planning and intended use
of the state budget facilities. However, despite the achieved success, the grave
faults take place, as evidenced by the following official data. During 2011 the
republican budget parameters were doubly adjusted and its readjustments were
realized 25 times. Herewith the negative trend of ineffective budgetary funds
development is still observed. Following the results of 2011 the allocated
budgetary funds were not absorbed the amount of 42,3 bln. KZT. In comparison with
the previous scheduling period the gain has composed 15%. This tells own tale
about the insufficient effectiveness of state planning operating system.
For the purpose of achievement of tasks set by the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N.A.Nazarbayev the existence of range of conditions is necessary. Firstly, the simple, clear and easy-to-understand mechanism of personal responsibility of public officers for the consequences of accepted decisions at all levels of public administration should be elaborated. Secondly, it needs to cardinally raise the responsibility for the development of deficiently deliberated decisions, directed to the implementation of elaborated policy.
It is common knowledge that one of the key failings of a current system of administrative-public management is insufficient capability to properly and acutely carry out the decisions accepted by the Head of state and Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan. As a result the correct and well-timed policy decisions in view of deficiently circumspect actions of executive branch lead to the social strain, lowering of a state machine image and eventually to the discredit of social and economic policy, conducted in our country. The main reason consists in the imprecise definition and allocation of control functions between the authorized government bodies, as also between the central authorities and regions.
One of the a public administration system ineffectiveness manifests is a relatively draft quality of normative legal documents and instability of a legal framework, which appears in the respectively frequent introduction of amendments and additions. The Code on administrative infringements, Budget Code, Tax Code, etc may serve as an example. The reason for this is that at the present time there is no efficient mechanism of responsibility for the elaboration of negritude regulatory legal acts and adverse effects to which they have led, since at the stage of elaboration its regulatory influence is not taken into account.
As a result of this Kazakhstan has a comparatively low-level international rating in the field of public management and institutional development quality. For example, within the frameworks of the World competitiveness index upon the institutes section the rating downgrade on 3 points was admitted, as a result of which at the present time Kazakhstan takes 94 position among 131 countries on the given indicator.
The parameters, characterizing the quality and effectiveness of public management, calculated by the methods developed by the World bank, also have the low rise values. Upon such indices as the government’s activity effectiveness, quality of legislation, the rule of law and corruption deterrence Kazakhstan is notably in arrears of not only the developed countries, but also of the post-socialist countries of Eastern Europe and Baltic states.
The creation in Kazakhstan of a public audit system, complying with the international standards, will allow negotiating the stated shortages and cardinally enhance the quality and effectiveness of public management system. The reason for this is that the public audit has the fundamental differences from the state control. The primary tasks of a state control are: compliance monitoring of the budget legislation requirements; control of completeness and timeliness of receipts in to the republican budget, as well as the effectiveness of tax and customs administration, etc.
The public audit apart from the determination of various financial misconducts, is called upon to evaluate the practicality, expediency and reasonableness of public funds spending. Its subject matter is not only to educe and suppress the financial misconducts, but to appraise and recommend, which way it needs to spend the national funds for the best society benefit. The public audit in itself presents the external public control over the state machinery activity in whole. It is destined to be the efficient instrument of society, whereby it participates in the public expenditures management. Its major principles are the independence and objectiveness, as also the voluntary accountability and openness for the society.
The achievement of an objective, set by the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N.A.Nazarbayev in the area of the new type of public management formation requires the solution of a wide range of brand new methodological and organizational tasks, having the prominent inter-industry nature, for the positive solution of which it is necessary to apply the system concept. The problem is that at the present time the economic, institutional, personnel and functionally structural questions of the public management modernization are solved in isolation from one another without the proper coordination sideways the Government and the Administration of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan. For example, the implementation of a new system of state planning is not compatible with the improvement of the state financial control system and modernization of civil service. The main reason consists in the absence at the superior power bodies of necessary tools for the management of complex and many-sided process of the public administration system transformation in new capacity. In developed countries, achieved the noticeable success in the concerned area, the Conception of structural institutional reforms of administrative system, the nationwide program are developed practically always, as well as the network of specialized research, educational and consulting organizations is formed.
The other problem, which should be eliminated at the process of structural transformations conduction is that the international practice in the area of public management reforming in certain cases is used piecemeal without the account of national, historic and cultural traditions, as well as the active form of government and state structure. Herewith the analog approach is used as an acceptable one, which in the process of elaboration and implementation of organizationally -managerial innovations has a supplementary role. On this issue the Head of state in the “Critical decennary” book has noted: “The mechanical mould is knowingly worse than the meaningful sculpture. To absorb all the best from the global experience and mobilize our saturated national traditions in the service of a socioeconomic progress – is a key to success: sustainable and prosperous Kazakhstan”.
The results of undertaken studies, as also the critical re-evaluation of the best international practices checked by the world experience, gives the evidence that the creation of an effectives system of public management is a complicated, multidimensional and continuous process, requiring the organization of special management system. In the countries, wherein such system was created, the reforms have been implemented more successfully and effectively. The positive solution of the problems addressed in the area of carrying out of structurally institutional reforms of administrative system creates the objective preconditions for the achievement of objectives, contained in the “Strategy- 2050” .