The plan of the following industrialization phase
Dr. Sc. Economics, Professor,
Institute of Economics CS of the MES RK
“We need to extensively develop the strategies of new market niches formation for the domestic producers in the most competitive branches...
“…We should develop the new manufactures with a focus on the expansion of non-resource sector, oriented to the export”.
The cluster formed in the south region of Kazakhstan, which in official papers is also called as “cotton” and “Textile”, at our counters may become the real prototype of petrochemical productions and textile enterprises combination. The released petrochemical production will allow use widely the synthetic fibers in the turnout of wide range of woven fabric. The implementation of this idea, when the close affinity between the petrochemical and textile enterprises arises, the more especially as the raw materials resources for them are territorially concentrated in one region, gives ground for the opportunities of cooperative connections creation within the “textile-chemical cluster” (pic.1).
The dynamics of the world market of textile industry development proves evidence for the reduction of the Western Europe countries and USA shares in the export and at the same time about the entry to advanced positions of producers from India, Mongolia, Vietnam, China and other Asian countries, which are able to create the common production chain, which links are geographically draw near to each other. In such a manner, the textile industry is becoming a kind of arena for the confrontation of respected authorities in the branch and newcomers, confirming their ambitions by meritable results, actively investing in the technologies and equipment. The globalization, soaring business competition sideways the developing countries, need of constant investments to the production modernization create the new conditions of game on the textile industry market.
The crucial role in the program of the branch rehabilitation is assigned to the idea of a textile cluster creation in the South-Kazakhstan oblast. Indeed, having appealed to experience of industrialized countries, wherein the textile industry is a significant economy sector, occupies the ponderable share in GDP and export turnover, it is possible to come to conclusion that the development of given branch allows providing the market filling with the goods of one’s own production, surge in the area of special-purpose machinery manufacturing, development of weaving industry and trade. However the process of the formation of the manufacturing chain of the high value added textile production is passing extremely complicated.
One of the noticeable projects in the area of textile industry became the start-up of the “Alliance-Russian Textile” LLP- joint venture, consisting of the “Myrzakent” Kazakhstani cotton and the large Russian textile holding, the “Russian Textile” corporation. The cyclical turnaround, including all the stages of a cotton fiber processing in to the fabric, is presented at the enterprise.
Eventually it needs to determine, which product exactly it should be produced, define the nomenclature of commodities produced. Anyway the production should be globally competitive. For that end such advantage as the adjacency to the sources of cheap raw materials, relatively cheap energy carriers, and sufficient quantity of human resources exists.
Picture 1 –The structure of a textile-chemical cluster
The pre-crisis period was characterized by the expansion of a home market capacity, what has predestined the necessity of recovery and accelerated development of essential industry branches, among which the man-made textile industry is. Its meaning in the providing of human economic activity constantly rises. It is a standalone product, which is widely applied not only in the production of traditional textile materials, but also in the engineering, residential and highway construction, in communications system support, medicine and many others manufacturing fields and consumption. The significant amount of textile and other products, particularly for industrial use may be produced only out of chemical fiber.
The development of chemical fiber industry solves the critical goals of fibrous material resources enhancement and textile products line extension. The textiles and goods out of modern chemical fiber upon the various application characteristics excel the textile products out of cotton fiber and completely substitute the natural silk and woolen fabrics. The applicable scope of chemical fiber increasingly expands, especially by means of industrial-use goods manufacture: cord for automobile and aircraft tyre, electric insulation, protective outfit of chemical apparatus. The ropes, slings, conveying belts; high-tensile fishing nets and gears; incombustible and chemical-resistant fabrics for gasoline tanks, oil and gasoline conducting hoses of cars and aircrafts engines; flame-resistant fabric for the upholstery of planes, buses, armors, submerged and surface ships; survival suits of a fire engineering service, light and strong fibrous material for parachutes; medical materials and accessories are also made of chemical fiber.
The chemical fibers play a critical part in the manufacture of filtration fabrics, particularly resistant to aggressive atmosphere influence. It is possible to change the diameter of chemical fibers from the two decimal places of micron to dozens of micron, having provided the high efficiency of filtration. The screen plates with the application of polyamide fiber are used in chemical, metallurgical, food, milling and other sectors of industry.
The chemical fibers have ceased to be only the substitutes of natural fibers. The natural fibers both on quality and quantity no longer able to satisfy the to the full extent the rapid-growing community needs in textile products and engineering requirements. If the properties of natural fibers change only in extremely close limits, since the natural high-molecular compounds form its basis, then the chemical fibers properties, for the manufacture of which the various artificial and synthetic polymeric materials and various methods of its processing are used, are variable between very wide limits. On basis of different primary products the modern technologies allow obtaining the chemical fibers with the required technical properties- from the high-tensile cordage fiber for aeronautical coverings to micro-thin ply, designed to manufacture of high quality textile products.
The sphere of application for hydrocarbon products- polymeric materials, synthetic fibers, plasticizers and others these days so extensive, that there is practically no any branch of industry and social sector of economy, wherein it could not used as some sort of goods. Resistance, persistence to thermal and chemical effect, capability to keep the set-up parameters and properties during a period of time, relative cheapness and comparative lightness, availability and sufficiency of necessary raw materials for its receiving – these are the key advantages, which allow synthetic fibers defy competition with other materials.