|1979||35 years ago the State Museum-Reserve "Monuments of ancient Taraz" was established|
|1890||Birthday of politician and journalist Mustafa Shokay|
25 December 1979
25 December 1890
Mustafa Shokay (Chokay, Chokaev, Chokay oglu; Kazakh
language: Mұstafa Shoқay (uly)) (December 25, 1890, Aulie-Tarangil, Turkestan
region, Russian Empire - December 27, 1941, Berlin, the Third Reich). During
the civil war in Russia and before the Second World War (1921 - 1941), he was
in the exile in France. He was accused of collaboration with the Third Reich.
Mustafa Shokay (Chokaev, Chokay) was born on December 25, 1890 in the Kazakh village (in Soviet times the aul was called a farm village named after 1st May) on the Syrdarya river near Perovsk (formerly Ak-mosque, now Kyzylorda) . His ancestors were the steppe aristocrats from Kypshak-Boschai generation. His grandfather was the governor of Syrdarya region in the Khivinsk khanate, and his father was a respected judge in the nation. Their family owned a large library of ancient manuscripts. At the behest of his father, Mustafa went to study at the Russian school in Petrovsk, it was important because the knowledge of the Russian language was vital. The landless peasants from Russia began to settle on the indigenous lands, thus the conflicts began. In 1902, his father sent him to study at the school in Tashkent. It was a time when Mustafa heard the name of Kerenskiy for the first time. Both Kerenskiy and Shokay finished the first Tashkent gymnasium with an interval of ten years, and later both graduated with honors from the Law Faculty of St. Petersburg University (1899-1904 and 1910-1914,respectively). In the turbulent revolutionary years, their paths have crossed. Upon the completion of high school in Tashkent in 1910 as the best student, Mustafa was presented to the gold medal. In order to stop this, the Turkestan Governor-General Samsonov, who hated “foreigners”, ordered to give a gold medal to another graduate, Zeprometov. Zeprometov refused to accept this offer, and Shokay received his medal. Trying to smooth the scandal, the Governor invited Mustafa to work as an interpreter in his administration, but Shokay refused and went to St. Petersburg, where he entered the law faculty of the University. The Turkestan scholarship was available only for Russian students, but Mustafa got help from the Kazan Tatars, he lived on their scholarship.
Father of Shokay died in 1912 and Mustafa returned home by the request of the fellows and served as a judge. Because of the Stolypin agrarian reform, many peasants from Russia began to resettle in Kazakhstan on the indigenous lands and thus the land disputes began.
During his studies, he continued to defend the interests of not only his countrymen, but also all of the Kazakh people. In July 3, 1907, Tsar Nikolay II issued a decree on the disenfranchisement of indigenous peoples of Siberia and Central Asia. They lost their little representation in the State Duma of Russia. However, the Kazakh politicians and intellectuals continued to fight for the interests of their people in any way. The young Kazakh, who graduated with honors from Petrograd University in 1914, was noticed. In 1914, the former member of the State Duma of I convocation, Alikhan Bukeikhanov recommended him as a secretary of the IV Muslim faction of the State Duma of Russia. Later, Shokay was supposed to not only run for the position of deputy from Bashkiria, but also to protect the interests of the Kazakh people. The landowner from Ufa, Selimgirey Zhanturin made for him a necessary donation in the form of land and agreed to his nomination to the Duma. While working in the Dima, Shokay met with the prominent Muslim politicians of Russia and became friends with Ahmad-Zaki Validi, the future chairman of the Bashkir autonomy.
At height of the First World War in June 25 1916, tsar Nikolay II issued a decree “On the requisition of indigenous dwellers”, and on attracting of the people from Turkestan and Steppe region aged from 19 to 43 to the rear works. The people were supposed to dig the trenches, despite the fact that Muslims were exempted from the military service due to the deprivation of electoral rights. The decree came into force during the days of Ramadan, at the height of the agricultural works, which caused outrage all the people. The powerful revolt began in Turkestan and in the Steppe regions. Amangeldy Imanov led the rebellion in the Kazakh steppes.
The numerous protests were sent to the State Duma. The Duma commission, which was headed by the well-known lawyer and a State Duma deputy Alexander Kerensky and Senator Kutlu-Muhammed Tevkelev, moved from Petrograd to Tashkent. Mustafa Shokay entered the Duma as a secretary and translator of the Muslim fraction. The Commission examined the problems of the region. The speech of Kerenskiy in the Duma on the analysis of the causes of the uprising Turkestan people against the policy of the tsarist government brought him an immense popularity in Russia. When he go bach to the Petrograd, Shokay also prepared the materials for their speech in the State Duma from their fraction. However, the severe economic and political crises was developed in the country as a result of an unsuccessful war. The State Duma was dissolved by Tsar Nikolay II, and then he abdicate from the throne.