|1936||The Constitution of the USSR was adopted in 1936. The conversion of the Kazakh ASSR into the Union Republic.|
|The Constitution of 1936 legislate the creation of the Union Republics that were part of the USSR.|
|1917||The second All-Kazakh Congress was held in 1917. The Kirghiz (Kazakh) autonomy "Alash" was proclaimed in 1917.|
5 December 1936
The Constitution of 1936 legislate the creation of the
Union Republics that were part of the USSR. Originally, there were 4 Republics
within the USSR (1922) (RSFSR, Ukraine, Belarus and the Transcaucasian
Federation). In 1936 there were already 7 Union Republics. And according to the
Constitution of 1936 – 11. The Kazakh SSR was formed among the others.
J. Stalin highlighted 3 main features (conditions), the presence of which will give the opportunity to convert the Autonomous Republics into the Union Republics:
· The republic should be located in the outskirts of the USSR, and should not be surrounded by the territory of the USSR in order to have the opportunity to put the question of its secession from the USSR while still being a part of the union.
· Theindigenous population of the Soviet Republic should prevail within the territory of this Republic
· The Republic should not be very small in terms of its population, not less than a million people, in order to protect the national independence
The draft of the Constitution of the Kazakh SSR was discussed on February-March 1937. The Special Congress of Soviets of Kazakhstan approved the Constitution of the Kazakh SSR on March, 26 1937.
The social structure:
Article 1. The Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic is a socialist state of workers and peasants.
Article 2. The political foundation of the Kazakh SSR is based on the Soviet Deputies of Workers.
Article 3. The economic basis of the Kazakh SSR is the socialist economic system and the socialist ownership of tools and means of production.
Article 4. The Socialist property in the Kazakh SSR has either a form of a state property (the weal of the whole people), or the form of the collective farm property (the property of collective farms, the property of cooperative societies).
The State structure:
The Kazakh SSR voluntarily merged with other equal republics.
The Kazakh SSR ensures the human rights instead of the Soviet Union, represented by its highest bodies of state authority; the rights are defined in the Article 14 of the Constitution of the USSR.
The highest agencies of State power of the Kazakh SSR.
The Supreme Soviet of the Kazakh SSR is the highest agency of state authority in the Kazakh SSR; it is elected for 4 years. The Supreme Soviet elects the Presidium and forms a government - TRC, which is the highest executive and administrative agency of state power.
The local authorities:
The Soviet Deputies of Workers are the main public authorities in the regions, towns and villages.
The Executive committees are the main executive bodies of the Soviet.
The democratic rights and freedoms are guaranteed by the Constitution. It pointed to the remnants of the past.
5 December 1917
The Second All-Kazakh Congress was held in Orenburg from December, 5 to December, 13 1917, in order to develop a program of action in the aftermath of the October Revolution of 1917. The Congress was attended by the delegates from all over the country: Bukeyev horde, Ural, Turgay, Akmola, Semipalatinsk, Semirechensk, Samarkand, and also from the Altai province. The Chairman of the Congress was B. Kulmanov.
During the opening of the Congress, the delegates decided to deliver a message concerning the famine-hit areas of the South Kazakhstan region. The society is fragmented and local authorities are unable to restore the order. After the discussion of these messages, the congress decided to “Encourage people to stop the political war and unite", within the first paragraph of the Resolution. The following issues were brought to the agenda: the stance on the autonomy of Siberia , Turkestan and southeastern Union; the Kazakh autonomous regions; police ; National Council ; education; National Fund ; muftiat ; People's Court ; aul management; the food question.
The central issue of the congress was the question of the establishment of the Kazakh autonomy. A. Bukeikhanov did the report on autonomy, which was referred to a special commission along with the issue of the Kazakh autonomy. X. Gabbassov appeared on behalf of the Commission. After the discussion of the report, which was based on the fact that: “The Provisional Government was abolished in the end of October, the Russian Republic lost its power and the moral authority. Thus, it the absence of any authority in the county, the civil war may occur, moreover, the wave of anarchy could swipe the whole villages and towns across the State, indeed, the level of anarchy is growing every day. The only way out of this situation, is to organize a strong power, which would be recognized by the entire population of the Kazakh regions", the congress unanimously decided to form the Kazakh authority areas under the name "Alash". The interim National Council “Alash Orda” was formed, it consisted of 25 seats for the members, 10 of which were provided for the Russians and other nations of the region. Semipalatinsk was the place of the temporary residence of Alash Orda. A. Bukeikhanov was elected as the head of the government of All-Kazakh National Council on an alternative basis; the post was also claimed by B. Kulmanov and A. Turlubaev. The Leaders of Alash Orda were in contact with the Soviet government, thus, X. Dosmukhambetov and A. Dosmukhambetov were in contact with Lenin and Stalin, and X. Gabbasov was negotiated with Stalin as a Commissar for Nationalities. Moreover, the leaders of Alash Orda established the contacts with Ataman A. Dutov, after he overthrew the Soviet regime in Orenburg, and also with the Committee of the Constituent Assembly in Samara and with the Provisional Government in Omsk and Siberia.
Started from making the contacts and compromises with the Soviet government, the leaders of Alash Orda then decided to enter into an alliance with the Soviet government in order to fight against Soviets. The decree of Alash Orda was accepted on June 1918, where the parties have agreed that: “All the decrees issued by the Soviet government within the territory of the autonomous Alash are invalid». The first cavalry regiment of Alash was formed in August. The Western Branch of Alash Orda with the center in Dzhambeyli in the Ural region, headed by J. Dosmukhamedov as well as the Eastern Branch, was moved from Semipalatinsk to Jana Semey on September 11, 1918.