|1993||The first Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan was adopted in 1993.|
|2011||Nursultan Nazarbayev delivered a message: "Let's build the future together"|
28 January 1993
Constitution (from Lat. Constitutio «arrangement») in
a formal sense, is the legal act, of higher legal force, of the state or the state-territorial
entity in the federal government, which establishes the basic political, legal
and economic systems of the State or entity, basis of the legal status of the
The first constitution was adopted on January 28, 1993, however, it is largely limited the president, thus on August 30, 1995, a new constitution was adopted which is operating to this day.
28 January 2011
A message from the President of the Republic of
Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev to the people of Kazakhstan. "Let's build
the future together." (January 28, 2011)
Providing the decent employment as the main form of social protection was announced as one of the strategic priorities of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the social policy. The employment is an essential condition for the development and implementation of human resources, the main thing in terms of the growth of social wealth and quality of life.
In this aspect, in order to improve the social modernization, which was indicated in the message of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbaev "Let's build the future together!” dated January 28, 2011, the Government and local authorities were instructed to develop and adopt an entirely new program of the employment strategy. The head of state proclaimed the main principle of social policy, the transition to motivational cash payments in order to overcome the dependency while the social assistance should be provided only for disabled persons and for those in need.
The need for updating of the system of employment is due to a decrease production rates, inflation, employment decrease, and respectively, a decrease in the income of ordinary people in the Republic of Kazakhstan during the transition period.
Adoption of the anti-crisis measures in the employment sector should lead to reduce of the unemployment level; it should suspend the layoffs, especially in the export-oriented industries.
As such, the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan, on behalf of the Head of State, has developed a special employment strategy (roadmap), aimed at the preservation and creation of new workplaces.
Employment strategy is one of the most important ways to provide the opportunities for employment income. The program of the employment strategy must find the implementation in the development of labor market, in the involvement of poor, unemployed and self-employed people in the active program to promote the productive employment.
In order to implement the message of the President, on the development of a new employment strategy, the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection of the Republic of Kazakhstan presented the draft of a new employment program until 2020. The main objective of a new program is to increase the income of the population by promoting the sustainable and productive employment, which could be achieved by solving the following problems: the involvement of the self-employed, unemployed and poor people in active employment programs (hereinafter - ALMPs); the development of human resources for the implementation of the program of forced industrial and innovative Development (FIID), improving the system of social assistance.
In this year, we plan to run the program on a pilot basis. The full implementation will begin in 2012. As a result of implementation of the program, by 2015, we plan to cover more than 1.5 million people. This will reduce the level of poverty in the country to 6 percent, and the unemployment rate will be no higher than 5.5 percent.
A special training program will be implemented as a part of the new employment strategy. This program takes into account about 100 ways of doing business, 100 of the most popular professions and 100 different situations in which people of Kazakhstan should be able to navigate.
A wide implementation of the active forms of employment in the framework of the Road Map (social jobs, youth practice, retraining and advanced training) will enhance the activity of citizens from the target population groups, and the unemployment rate (4.7%) will be fixed at the level below the general level of unemployment of the country
However, despite the positive developments, the national labor market is not balanced. If there are unemployed people, there still will be unfilled vacancies, there is no objective forecast of the companies needs for the specialists. We now have a shortage of work force, especially skilled personnel, the workers in technical and service industries; it is associated with the low quality of labor resources and the lack of real communication between production and training. Approximately one third of the working population do not have professional training.
Within the framework of the anti-crisis measures, the government was instructed to move to motivational cash payments in order to overcome the dependency while the social assistance should be provided only for disabled persons and for those in need.
Therefore, a new concept of the strategy in the first place, involves assistance to the unemployed, the self-employed, as well as to rural youth up to 25 years. They can get free education with the further employment.
The Residents of the villages with low economic potential were offered to resettle in the promising regions, where the large industrial projects are implemented. The state is ready to assume the costs of relocation; at the beginning they will be paid, as well as the rental housing will be provided for them on the concessional terms.
The employers who will hire the specialists, who have undergone the retraining, can expect an increase in the amount of subsidies on loans granted under the PAIID program and "Business Road Map-2020". The courses on entrepreneurship will be taught in the villages with the potential for development.
The active employment policy refers to one of the major social priorities of the Government of Kazakhstan. Ensuring the decent employment is the main form of social protection of the population, the most important condition for the development and implementation of human resource capacity, the main means of growth of social wealth and quality of life.
The ongoing transition to accelerated industrial and innovative development on the one hand, creates the possibilities for further expanding of the employment growth, and on the other it requires the development and implementation of new approaches to engage in the labor market of domestic labor reserves, improve the quality of economic activity and labor.
The active measures to promote the employment and labor income are not used on the appropriate level in the social support of the disadvantaged population.
During the development of a new program for the implementation of the new social policy in the sphere of employment, the further improving of the social assistance system to achieve the rising incomes by promoting the sustainable and productive employment, we found the necessity to implement the amendments and additions to some legislative acts of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
The main objective of social policy is to increase the incomes of the population by promoting the sustainable and productive employment.
We plan to introduce a new structure of employment, the employment centers that will improve the quality of public services in the areas of employment, both for the population and for employers. The main burden of the implementation of ALMPs will be carried by the employment centers, which need to be set in districts and cities of regional importance.
In accordance with the experience gained during the implementation of the Roadmap, there is a need to improve the legislation in terms of enhancing the role of the state in regulating the labor market, as well as in defining a single order of creation and funding of social jobs and youth practice.
In addition, the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan, on behalf of the Head of State, has developed a special employment strategy (roadmap), aimed at the preservation and creation of new workplaces.
We also plan the involvement of the self-employed, unemployed and poor people in active employment programs (hereinafter - ALMPs). This will require the improving of the structure of employment. The main burden of the implementation of ALMPs will be carried by the employment centers, which need to be set in districts and cities of regional importance.
The employment centers will improve the quality of public services in the areas of employment, both for the population and for employers. A special role in the individual work will be assigned to social contract, which is an agreement providing for the mutual obligations of the parties, the participants of ALMPs and employment centers.
The organization of social jobs and youth practice as active forms of social protection against unemployment, which are involved in the labor market of unemployed citizens of the target populations, proved itself good. Therefore, there is a need to identify a single procedure for the establishment and funding of social jobs and youth practice.